Glossary - P
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See income statement.
A leadership style in which the leader has high initiative and high expectations of him/herself, and expects the same of employees. See also leadership styles.
One side of a leaf in a publication.
The total number of pages in a publication. Also called extent.
The process of developing the optimal blend of balance, colors, contrast, layout, white space, and so on for one or more printed pages.
A software application for creating high-quality publications, such as ads, brochures, business cards, newsletters, and posters.
The numbering of pages in a document.
A drawing and painting program that can be used to create paintbrush and charcoal effects.
A low-end Windows graphics application.
A multi-voting technique used to rank-order a set of factors when the members of a group cannot reach agreement on the priorities of each of the factors. GUIDE
One page of a folded brochure.
A color-matching standard for inks, paper, and other materials.
An example, model, pattern, or standard.
A statement that seems opposed to common sense but may be true. See also rhetorical strategies.
Using similarly constructed words and phrases for headings, subheadings, sentences, phrases, items in a list, and so on.
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate.
A phrase or sentence with a surprise or unexpected ending. See also rhetorical strategies.
A histogram that is ordered by frequency of occurrence and shows how many results each identified cause generated.
A play on words; a pun. See also rhetorical strategies.
Qualitative research in which researchers participate in the setting they are observing.
A leadership style in which the leader consults employees and considers their suggestions. See also leadership styles.
The verb form used when the subject is being acted upon, rather than being the doer of the action. See also active voice.
The process of pasting copy to mounting boards as a camera-ready mechanical. Also, the result of this process.
A property right granted to protect an invention.
A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram.
Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.
The number of years it takes for the cumulative dollar value of the benefits to exceed the cumulative costs of a project; that is, how quickly the investment will begin paying for itself.
A payment model in which fees for online advertising are based on qualifying click-throughs.
A payment model in which fees for online advertising are based on how often the web site shows your banner ad.
PC Paintbrush bitmap graphics file format. See also bitmap graphics file formats.
Adobe Acrobat file format.
The correct use of instructional strategies or styles.
See peer review.
An estimate, expressed as a percentage, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a group of activities.
A number from 1 to 100 that indicates the percentage of the distribution above and below the item.
Marks on a mockup (dummy) that indicate where to perforate the paper.
A type of document binding in which the pages are glued along one edge. See also binding types.
See performance review.
Observation and ranking of student performance—both the process and the result—based on pre-established performance criteria.
A set of minimum measurable benchmarks your system should be able to achieve.
The cost to earn a dollar of value. Calculated as ACWP / BCWP, or 1 / CPI.
A target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective, against which actual achievement can be compared. A performance goal can be expressed as an absolute or as a range of acceptable performance (usually expressed in percentages).
A document that establishes goals, defines success metrics, and documents progress review sessions for an underperforming employee.
A strategic management approach used to monitor and manage business performance.
Identifies achievement of outcome or output in terms of quality, quantity, timeliness, and cost productivity.
An approved plan against which deviations are compared for management control. See also baseline types.
A category of quality measures that address how well a system functions.
What the learner should be able to do on the job as a result of the training. Also called behavioral objectives, instructional objectives.
A document that details specific, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, and time-bound (SMART) performance expectations for an employee.
Collecting and disseminating performance information, including status reporting, forecasting, and progress measurement.
A requirement that imposes conditions on a functional requirement. Also called performance specification.
A summary of tasks and deliverables that includes the contract and work requirements considered to be most critical to satisfactory contract performance and the minimum performance standard for each.
An assessment exercise in which students demonstrate their skills and knowledge to solve a complex problem.
A systematic approach to developing organizational, process, and individual performance. Also called performance improvement.
Testing that evaluates the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often performed using an automated test tool to simulate a large number of users. Also know as load testing.
A documented, systematic process for program management, which includes integration of program scope, schedule and cost objectives, establishment of a baseline plan for accomplishment of program objectives, and use of earned value techniques for performance measurement during execution of the program.
Structuring all aspects of an acquisition around the purpose of the work to be performed, as opposed to either the manner by which the work is to be performed or a broad and imprecise statement of work.
A statement of work for performance-based acquisitions that describes the required results in clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes. Also called performance work statement.
Design that reflects users’ idioms, language, metaphors, and understanding of how to perform tasks, and results in a system that is intuitive and enables users to quickly and efficiently perform their normal work functions without assistance.
A stage of team development in which team members function as a unit, working cooperatively to perform task activities. See also team development stages.
A fictional person who models the characteristics, goals, and needs of specific users.
A pocket-sized personal computer, useful for storing appointments, phone numbers, reminders, and so on.
Giving human characteristics to an inanimate object. See also rhetorical strategies.
A graphical display of related information in the form of a flowchart that shows all tasks and task dependencies. Boxes represent tasks, and lines connecting the boxes represent dependencies. See also plot types, project network diagram.
See project phase.
The study of individuals’ experiences regarding a concept or a phenomenon. See also research methods.
(Pronounced “fishing”) A form of Internet fraud in which a web site masquerades as that of a trusted, legitimate organization, typically a financial institution.
A blog that primarily consists of photographs. See also blog types.
A photoblog that automatically updates when new photos are added. See also blog types.
Engraving created by photographing an image on a metal plate then etching the image.
A high-end digital image editing package that features style layers and support for CMYK process color separation.
A photographic image manipulation program used to optimize low-resolution digital images and to create separated, print-quality bitmap graphics.
An engineering inspection of a configuration item to verify that the item "as-built" conforms to the "build-to" documentation that defines it. Results of the PCA are part of the acceptance review.
In typography, a unit of measure equal to 12 points, or approximately 1/6th of an inch. See also point.
A graphical display of related information in which a circle is divided into segments, with one segment for each variable. The entire circle represents 100 percent and each segment is proportionate to the percentage of the whole that it represents. See also plot types.
A smaller version of a larger study, conducted to test feasibility and prepare for the larger study. Also called pilot test. See also feasibility study.
See pilot study.
Short for picture element.
The resolution of an input device, such as a scanner. See also dots per inch.
Presenting someone else’s works, words, or ideas as your own.
See scheduled start date.
The physical work scheduled plus the authorized budget to accomplish the scheduled work.
Preparing, developing, or acquiring the information you will use to design the project; assessing the benefits, risks, and risk-adjusted life-cycle costs of alternative solutions; and establishing realistic cost, schedule, and performance goals, for the selected alternative, before either proceeding to full acquisition of the capital project or useful segment or terminating the project.
A piece of metal, paper, plastic, or rubber used on a printing press to reproduce an image.
The hardware and systems software on which applications software is developed or installed and operated.
Use of redundant words to enrich a thought. See also rhetorical strategies.
Project blog. See also blog types.
A software tool that enhances the functionality of an application such as a web browser.
Project Management Professional. A certification awarded by the Project Management Institute.
Portable network graphics file format. See also bitmap graphics file formats.
A digital audio broadcast that can be transferred or listened to on mobile devices and personal computers. See also blog types.
In typography, a unit of measure equal to approximately 1/72nd of an inch. See also pica.
The coordinator for an activity or program.
In typography, the distance (in points) from the top of the highest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender.
An organization’s guidelines, principles, and rules. See also procedures.
Strategic behavior to maximize self-interest, sometimes at the expense of others' interests.
Understanding the role of influence, leadership, and power in an organization, and using it to influence others.
See office politics.
The repetition of conjunctions in close succession. See also rhetorical strategies.
A new window that blocks the previously displayed window to draw attention to its content, often an advertisement.
A file format that allows efficient electronic distribution of large documents.
(Pronounced "ping") A file format that supports images with millions of colors.
A web site that provides a wide range of information, references, and services related to a specific topic using its own content and links to other web sites.
A collection of work products that provides a visual representation of an individual’s abilities, achievements, and interests.
A related group of projects. See also program.
An assessment of performance or progress based on a collection of work products.
A page that is taller than it is wide. See also landscape.
A written outline of the skills, responsibilities, knowledge, authority, and relationships related to a specific position title.
The way that a brand, product, or organization is introduced to its target market. This includes image, identity, pricing, packaging, prestige, store placement, and its perceived value in relation to competitive products.
See register marks.
See white space.
Testing focused on showing that the software works. Also called test to pass. See also negative testing.
Binding loose sheets of paper together using a post and screw inserted through a hole in the sheets. See also binding types.
The first meeting after contract award, chaired by the buyer to orient all personnel (buyer and contractor) to the project requirements.
See final report.
A comprehensive assessment of a newly installed system, conducted by the system development team and users, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system development after the system has been in production for a period of time (normally 6 months).
The original international type standard for scalable type. See also TrueType.
A project document that details the findings of the Disposition phase review, documenting the lessons learned from the shutdown and archiving of the terminated system. TEMPLATE
A test that measures performance of objectives after a unit of instruction.
A tool used to create visual presentation slides that can include special effects and transitions.
PowerPoint slide show file format.
PowerPoint presentation file format.
Pretended omission for rhetorical effect. See also rhetorical strategies.
Meetings to aid the ranking of prospective suppliers before final award determination and to examine their facilities or capabilities.
An evaluation of a prospective contractor’s capability to perform under the terms of a proposed contract.
A meeting to brief prospective bidders and to explain complicated specifications and requirements as early as possible after the request for proposal has been issued and before the proposals are evaluated.
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (nodes), and activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which activities are to be performed.
In the precedence diagramming method, a term used for a logical relationship.
In the arrow diagramming method, the activity that enters a node. In the precedence diagramming method, the “from” activity.
A task that must start or finish before another task can start or finish.
In metrics, a measurement of predicted quality. An example of a predictive measurement is a readability index.
An introductory statement that explains a book’s background, intent, or scope. See also front matter.
A review, conducted during system acquisition, of each configuration item to evaluate the selected design approach in terms of progress, technical adequacy, and risk resolution; determine the item’s compatibility with the development specification’s performance and engineering requirements; and establish the existence and compatibility of the physical and functional interfaces among the item and other items in the project.
See front matter.
See prepress proof.
Research that involves taking measurements before and after an intervention to determine whether any changes have occurred. Also called “before and after studies.”
Camera work, color separations, and other tasks performed prior to printing. Also called preparation.
Any proof made using dyes, ink jet, overlays, or toner instead of ink. Also called dry proof, off-press proof. See also press proof.
A meeting hosted by the buyer’s contracting organization to assist prospective buyers in understanding the request for proposal.
Meeting at which proofs are evaluated before authorizing production.
Any proof made on a press using the ink, paper, and plates specified for the job. Also called strike off, trial proof. See also prepress proof.
A communication targeted at news media to announce a noteworthy event.
A test given before instruction begins to establish a baseline for measuring post-instructional performance.
Routine maintenance tasks performed proactively on a regular, scheduled basis, rather than reactively when equipment breaks down.
Navigational elements that provide shortcuts to the main sections of a web site.
An organization that is responsible for coordinating the activities of a number of subcontractors, integrating their deliverables, and managing risks to meet the buyer’s requirements in terms of performance, cost, and schedule.
Paper-based documents, including books, magazines, and newspapers, as opposed to online documents.
A company’s policy that explains consumers’ privacy rights regarding the collection, access, storage, and use of personal data.
Printer output file format.
The likelihood of occurrence. Also, the ratio of chances that an event may or may not occur to the sum of the chances of both happening and not happening.
A common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate, or high by combining the probability of its occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs.
Learning in which students evaluate their thinking and progress while solving problems.
The specific methods an organization uses to carry out their policies. See also policies.
The ink colors used in four-color process printing: cyan (process blue), magenta, yellow, and black.
A graphical representation of the steps in a process. See also swimlane diagram.
See process flow diagram.
A selected, cross-functional group of people who are directly or indirectly involved with a specific process and are tasked with improving that process within an organization.
Documenting complex business processes or strategies in terms of activities and interactions in a way that allows an organization to implement process changes and/or improvements without negatively impacting associated processes or strategies. Also called business modeling.
The process of acquiring goods or services from outside the immediate project organization, beginning with determining the need and ending with contract completion and closeout.
Determining what to procure and when.
A baseline that describes a product’s functional, physical, and interface characteristics. See also baseline types.
See life cycle.
The features and functions that characterize a product or service.
The press run to print a specified quantity of a product.
The process of increasing an individual’s personal and professional knowledge and skills through conferences, mentoring, reading, seminars, workshops, and other learning opportunities.
Appropriate clothing and accessories (typically, a business suit, dress shoes, and so on) for your organization and your position within it. Also called business-professional attire. See also business casual.
The active demonstration of a set of attitudes and behaviors accepted as appropriate to an occupation.
See income statement.
A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way.
A project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it is completed. For each activity, you assign a best, worst, and most probable completion time estimate, then use these estimates to determine the average completion time.
Management of a related series of projects over a period of time, to accomplish broad goals to which the individual projects contribute.
An organizational entity established to complete a number of projects that collectively satisfy a strategic or tactical organizational objective.
An individual typically responsible for a number of related projects, each with its own project manager.
Identifies what you did, not necessarily how well you did it. The most typical example is milestone completion.
A process of increasingly formal efforts for dealing with an individual’s performance that does not meet expected standards.
A temporary undertaking with prescribed objectives, magnitude, duration, and a specific outcome.
A project management tool used to develop tasks, analyze workloads, assign resources, monitor budgets, and track progress.
The amount of funds allocated for all expenses related to a specific project.
The written understanding between the project manager and approving officials regarding the project's purpose, scope, objectives, major activities, timeline, risks, organization, lines of authority and accountability, responsibilities of various participants, and general method of operation.
The area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate creation, dissemination, storage, and disposal of project information, and that consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.
The area of project management that consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control--the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget.
Determining likely project costs and durations with some degree of certainty based on informed judgments.
The area of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project, and that consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.
The area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated, and that consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and integrated change control.
The four sequential major time periods through which any project passes: concept, definition, execution (implementation or development), finishing (commissioning or closing out).
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project’s requirements.
An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. This standard identifies and defines nine areas of knowledge for successful project management: communications, cost, human resources, integration, procurement, quality, risks, scope, and time.
An organization dedicated to advancing the discipline of project management and state-of-the-art project management practices.
The organizational entity that defines and maintains repeatable project management process standards.
A certification conferred by the Project Management Institute.
Members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities.
In a non-procurement project, the individual responsible and accountable for planning, budgeting, procurement, and life-cycle management of the project to achieve its cost, schedule, and performance goals. In a procurement project, the individual familiar with the technical requirements of the procurement who writes the SOW, defines and articulates the contract requirements, and is responsible for planning, program control functions, developing program objectives, delivery requirements, scheduling, estimating, budgeting, specific project plans, surveillance plan development, and participating in the source selection.
Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect chronology. Also called PERT chart.
A collection of logically related project activities, usually ending at the completion of a major deliverable.
One of several key project-planning documents that use a building-block approach to planning, this document describes the technical and management approach to be followed for a project. The plan typically describes the work to be done, the resources required, the methods to be used, the procedures to be followed, the schedules to be met, and the way the project will be organized. The plan includes a list of deliverables, actions required, and other key events needed to accomplish the project. It is a vehicle for documenting the project’s scope, tasks, schedule, allocated resources, and interrelationships with other projects. Revisions to the Project Plan occur at the end of each phase and as additional information becomes available. TEMPLATE
Integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document.
Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included in the plan.
Development and maintenance of the project plan.
An area of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope from outside the performing organization, and that consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout.
An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken, and that consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.
An area of project management that includes the processes required to identify, analyze, and respond to project risk, including risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control.
A document that identifies the planned dates to perform activities and meet milestones.
The work that must be done to deliver a product or service with the specified features and functions.
An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.
The person in an organization whose support and approval is required for a project to start and continue.
A document that describes a systematic approach to evaluating contractor performance and establishes the organization’s responsibilities for determining whether contractor performance is acceptable.
Defines all test activities required to assure that the software product will perform satisfactorily for all users. As a minimum, the plan should include descriptions for unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing.
An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project, and that consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.
The representation of a future act as already being accomplished. See also rhetorical strategies.
The final sample of a page, created for the customer’s approval for production.
Evidence to support acceptance of a proposed solution.
Standard abbreviations, symbols, and words used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks, editing marks.
A typeface in which characters have a variable width. See also monospaced type.
A procurement document that describes an organization’s ability and willingness to provide the requested product according to the requirements of the solicitation. Also, an offer submitted to enter into a contract, contract modification, or termination settlement.
Development of a written offer of services, usually in response to a request for proposal, or a written request for funding, as in grants, loans, and subsidies.
A process, or set of directions, for accomplishing a task.
An early, experimental design of a product used for illustration or testing. See also wireframe.
A technique for developing and testing a preliminary version of a software product (either as a whole or in modular units) to emulate functionality without encumbering features like error handling, help messages, security controls, and other utilities that are not part of the design logic.
Adobe PostScript file format.
Adobe Photoshop graphics file format.
In Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, a physical/motor learning domain that references objectives and test items that require manual and physical skills. See also affective domain, Bloom’s taxonomy, cognitive domain.
Microsoft Publisher file format.
Intellectual property of any kind which can be freely copied and distributed.
Creating, developing, and executing activities, programs, and policies to influence public opinion about an event, idea, product, or organization.
The process of making effective presentations to an audience.
A desktop publishing layout program used to create simple documents for in-house document production.
The process of issuing a publication.
Standard marks and signs used to separate words, phrases, and sentences, denote emphasis and pauses, and otherwise clarify meaning in a written communication.
An offer to buy certain services, supplies, or construction based on certain terms and conditions.
Choosing research participants who have specific characteristics.
The probability that study results are based on chance rather than the result of the intervention.
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