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Glossary - R

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Race condition

A cause of concurrency problems in which there are multiple accesses to a shared resource, at least one access of which is a write, with no mechanism used by either resource to moderate simultaneous access.

RAD

Rapid application development.

Ragged left

See flush right.

Ragged right

See flush left.

RAID

Redundant array of independent disks.

Raised cap

A style in which the first letter of a paragraph appears in a larger point size and aligns with the bottom of the first line. See also drop cap.

Raised printing

See thermography.

RAM

Responsibility assignment matrix.

Ramp testing

Testing in which an input signal is continuously raised until the system breaks down.

Random sample

See representative sample.

Range

In statistics, the difference between the smallest and largest values in a data set.

Rank-order scales

A technique used to measure a respondent’s order of preference within a set of items.

Rapid application development (RAD)

A variation on joint application development which creates an application more quickly through strategies such as using fewer formal methodologies and reusing software components. See also project management methodologies.

Rapid prototyping

A type of prototyping in which emphasis is placed on developing prototypes earlier in the development process to permit early feedback and analysis in support of the development process.

Raster graphics

See bitmap graphics.

Ratio scale

A numeric measurement scale in which the distances between units on the scale are all equal and there is a true zero point. See also interval scale, nominal scale, ordinal scale.

Rational Unified Process (RUP)

A methodology that uses an iterative approach to development, which facilitates code reuse, product changes, and early risk mitigation, documentation, testing, and product release. See also project management methodologies.

RDF

Resource description framework.

RDU

Remaining duration.

Readability

A measure of the degree to which a user can easily and accurately read written text, usually stated as a required age or grade level. See also learnability, usability.

Reader-centered approach

Writing that considers the readers’ goals, situations, experience, and expectations.

Real interest rate

An interest rate that has been adjusted to remove the effect of expected or actual inflation.

Real or constant dollar values

Economic units measured in terms of constant purchasing power.

RealAudio

An application that produces highly compressed audio files to broadcast real-time, live audio on the web.

Really simple syndication (RSS)

A family of web feed formats used for web syndication. See also web feed, web feed formats.

Realtime transport protocol (RTP)

A data transfer protocol used to provide live media to one or more clients at the same time.

Realtime transport streaming protocol (RTSP)

The standard used to transmit stored media to one or more clients at the same time.

RealVideo

An application that delivers real-time, broadcast-quality video on the web.

Ream

500 sheets of paper.

Reasonable accommodation

An adjustment to the normal work environment, method, or circumstances that enables an individual with a disability to perform the essential functions of the position.

Reasonable cost

A cost that in its nature and amount does not exceed that which would be incurred by a prudent person in the conduct of competitive business. See also cost types.

Re-baselining

Establishing a new project baseline because of significant or wide-ranging changes in project scope.

Reconciliation

The process of improving relationships that have been negatively affected by a conflict.

Records management

The effective and efficient receipt, processing, storage, and retrieval of all project records in whatever form (hardcopy, electronic, and so on).

Recovery testing

Testing to confirm that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Recto

On a two-sided document, the even-numbered page that appears on the right side. See also verso.

Recurring costs

Expenditures against specific tasks that would occur on a repetitive basis; for example, tool maintenance. See also cost types.

Redline

A hard copy or on-screen version of a document that shows all changes since the prior version.

Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)

An array of disk drives that protects stored data from multiple disk drive failures.

Register marks

Crossed or perpendicular lines used to align colors, cuts, folds, and so on. Also called crossmarks, position marks.

Regression analysis

A statistical technique used to compare and identify relationships between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

Regression testing

Retesting a previously tested program following its modification to ensure that unintended effects or errors have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made, and that the program still complies with its specified requirements.

Relationship marketing

Marketing strategies that focus on building and maintaining a lifelong relationship with a customer. See also marketing types.

Relative price

A price ratio between two goods as, for example, the ratio of the price of energy to the price of equipment.

Release candidate

A pre-release version of a product which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs (which ideally should be removed before the final version is released).

Reliability

The extent to which a product will continue to operate under stated conditions for a stated period of time rather than failing or shutting down.

Remaining duration (RDU)

The time needed to complete an activity.

Remaining float (RF)

The difference between the early finish date and the late finish date.

Repeatability

A process’ ability to be performed multiple times with the same result.

Replicability

The ability to duplicate an activity, process, or result at a different location or at a later time.

Representative sample

A random sample that is a true representation of the population. Also called probability sample, random sample.

Request for Information (RFI)

A formal request for a vendor to provide market information (for example, availability, capabilities, and cost) for a product or service. See also request for proposal, request for quotation.

Request for Proposal (RFP)

A formal invitation that contains a scope of work and seeks a formal response (proposal) describing both methodology and compensation to form the basis of a contract. See also request for information, request for quotation.

Request for Quotation (RFQ)

Generally equivalent to request for proposal; however, in some application areas, may have a more narrow or specific meaning. See also request for information, request for proposal.

Requirement

A condition or capability needed by a customer/user to solve a problem or achieve an objective. Also, a condition or capability that must be met or possessed by the product to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents.

Requirements analysis

The process of studying customer/user(s) needs to arrive at a definition of system, hardware, or software requirements. Also called job analysis. GUIDE

Requirements definition

The period of time during which the requirements for a software product are defined and documented.

Requirements management

A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to establish a common understanding between the customer/user and the project team regarding the customer/users' software requirements. This understanding forms the basis for estimating, planning, performing, and tracking the project's activities throughout the life cycle.

Requirements Specification

A work product deliverable that describes in detail, in non-technical language that the customer/users can understand, the manual and automated requirements of the product that will be delivered. Typically included are functional requirements, performance requirements, and interface requirements.

Requirements traceability

The process of understanding, documenting, approving, and auditing the relationships between a system’s components and functions and the requirements from which the system was developed. Each system function and component should be directly traceable to a requirement identified by a user, client, customer, or stakeholder.

Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM)

A project document that tracks the requirements identified in the Functional Requirements Document (FRD) and their implementation throughout the development and testing processes. TEMPLATE

Research

The systematic gathering of data, facts, and information designed to advance knowledge.

Research design

An overall plan of action to ensure that the study objectives are met.

Research methods

The strategies researchers use to collect data, facts, and information. See also biographical study, case study, ethnography, grounded theory, phenomenological study, survey types.

Research skills

The attributes required to be a successful researcher, which include the ability to recognize and evaluate problems, think independently, and develop theories.

Reserve

A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk.

Residual risk

A risk that remains after implementing risk responses.

Resolution

The crispness of an image, measured in dots by line (for example, 1024 x 768) or dots per inch (for example, 600 dpi).

Resource allocation

The process of assigning the resources or assets necessary to carry out priority-based strategies and to achieve objectives.

Resource description framework (RDF)

A web content syndication format. See also web feed, web feed formats.

Resource leveling

Any form of network analysis in which management concerns (such as limited resource availability) drive scheduling decisions (start and finish dates).

Resource Plan

A document that defines the number and types of resources required to successfully complete a project.

Resource planning

Determining what resources (people, equipment, and materials) are needed in what quantities to perform project activities.

Resource-limited schedule

A project schedule whose start and finish dates reflect resource availability.

Responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)

A document that relates the project organization structure to the work breakdown structure to help ensure that each element of the project’s scope of work is assigned to a responsible individual.

Responsibility chart

See responsibility assignment matrix.

Responsibility matrix

See responsibility assignment matrix.

Result-oriented management

A management approach based on achieving maximum results based on previously established clear and measurable agreements. See also management styles.

Results-based leadership

A leadership style that effectively connects leadership attributes (such as personal integrity and analytical thinking) with leadership results for the customers, employees, investors, and organization. See also leadership styles.

Resume

A document that summarizes a person’s education, professional experience, and job qualifications.

Retainage

A portion of a contract payment that is held until contract completion to ensure full performance of the contract terms.

Return

The difference between the value of the benefits and the costs of a project.

Return on investment (ROI)

The financial return for a given outlay. GUIDE

Revenues

An income statement term, referring to the sum of money owed the company for sales of goods and services, before adjustments for customer discounts and allowances. See also net sales revenue.

Reverse

The technique of displaying light text on a dark background.

Reverse engineering

Developing design specifications by inspection and analysis of an existing product.

Rework

Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming item into compliance with requirements or specifications.

RF

Remaining float.

RFI

Request for Information.

RFP

Request for Proposal.

RFQ

Request for Quotation.

RGB

Red-green-blue. The combination of colors that display as a single color on a computer monitor. See also CMYK.

Rhetoric

The study of how to use language effectively.

Rhetorical strategies

See alliteration, anacoluthon, anadiplosis, anaphora, anastrophe, antithesis, aporia, aposiopesis, apostrophe, archaism, assonance, asyndeton, brachylogy, catachresis, chiasmus, climax, euphemism, hendiadys, hypallage, hyperbaton, hyperbole, hysteron proteron, irony, litotes, metaphor, metonymy, onomatopoeia, oxymoron, paradox, paraprosdokian, paronosmasia, personification, pleonasm, polysyndeton, praeterito, prolepsis, syllepsis, synchysis, synecdoche, synesis, tautology, zeugma.

Rhetorical theory

A communication theory which states that the communication process is neither a single process nor a linear process, but rather a dynamic process.

Rich content

High quality information, often presented using advanced techniques to emphasize the message.

Rich media

Internet technology that involves animation, interactivity, or other special effects.

RIFF

Resource interchange file format. A format used to store sound and graphics files so they can be played by different types of computers.

Right justified

See flush right.

Rights page

A section of a book that provides information such as available formats, catalog number, copyright statement, international standard book number (ISBN), permission to distribute, permission to reproduce, place of publication, and year of publication. Also called copyright page. See also front matter.

Risk

An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, will have a positive or negative effect on a project’s objectives.

Risk acceptance

A technique of risk response planning in which the project team decides not to change the project plan to deal with the risk or cannot identify any other suitable risk response strategy.

Risk analysis

An examination of risk areas or events to assess the likelihood and probable consequences of each event or combination of events in the analysis, and to determine the possible options for risk avoidance.

Risk assessment

Identification and quantification of project risks to ensure that they are understood and can be prioritized.

Risk averse

An unwillingness to accept more than a low level of risk.

Risk category

A source of potential risk reflecting external, organizational, project management, or technical sources.

Risk database

A repository that provides for collection, maintenance, and analysis of data gathered and used in risk management processes.

Risk event

A discrete occurrence that may affect the project.

Risk identification

Determining which risks might affect the project and documenting their characteristics.

Risk management

An approach to problem analysis that is used to identify what can go wrong, quantify and access associated risks, and implement/control the appropriate approach for preventing or handling each risk identified. GUIDE

Risk Management Plan

A project document that defines how project risk analysis and management will be implemented in the project. It identifies, analyzes, and mitigates the potential risks that could impact the success of the project as measured in terms of cost, schedule, and technical success. Because risks evolve and change throughout the course of a project, it is imperative to reassess the risks and update the Risk Management Plan throughout the project’s life cycle. TEMPLATE

Risk monitoring and control

Monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, executing risk reduction plans, and evaluating their effectiveness throughout the project life cycle.

Risk Response Plan

A document that details all identified risks, including their description, cause, probability of occurring, impacts on objectives, proposed responses, owners, and current status.

Risk response planning

Developing procedures and techniques to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the project’s objectives. The tools include acceptance, avoidance, mitigation, and transference.

Risk seeking

An eagerness to accept a high level of risk.

Rivers

Spaces between words that create irregular vertical lines of white space on a page.

Robot

See spider.

ROI

Return on investment.

Rollout

A widespread, phased introduction of a product or service.

Rollover

A feedback cue, such as a color change, information display, or sound that activates when the cursor moves over a particular part of a web page. Also called mouseover.

Root cause

The first or most basic cause of a problem or process noncomformance.

Root cause analysis

The process of determining the underlying reasons for a problem or process noncomformance (for example, an error, fault, or failure) with the intent of preventing future occurrences.

RSS

Really simple syndication.

RSS

Really simple syndication file format.

RSS feed

An XML file that provides content summaries and includes links to full content and other metadata.

RTF

Rich text file format.

RTM

Requirements Traceability Matrix.

RTP

Realtime transport protocol.

RTSP

Realtime transport streaming protocol.

Rubrics

Specific criteria or guidelines used to evaluate students’ work.

Rule

In typography, a vertical or horizontal line that separates areas on a page.

Run-in heading

A heading, usually in bold or italic type, that appears on the same line as the subsequent text. See also heading.

Running foot

See footer.

Running head

See header.

Run-on sentence

Two independent clauses joined together without a connecting word or punctuation to separate them. Also called fused sentence.

RUP

Rational Unified Process.

 

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