Revision for “Glossary – O” created on April 17, 2018 @ 22:11:04 [Autosave]

Glossary - O
<td id="content_col"> <!-- edit page button --> <!-- page content --> <h1 id="pageTitle">Glossary - O</h1> <span><p>Return to <a href="">Glossary</a> home</p> <h3><a name="Objective" id="Objective"><span style="color: #0000ff">Objective</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A concrete statement (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timebound) that describes what a project is trying to achieve.</p> <h3><a name="ObjectLinkingAndEmbedding" id="ObjectLinkingAndEmbedding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Object linking and embedding (OLE)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Refers to Paste Linking and Paste Embedding in Windows applications. After copying an object to the clipboard, switching the receiving document, and using Edit &gt; Paste Special: </p><ul><blockquote> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><li>Paste linking leaves a trail to the source document and automatically updates the receiving document when the source document changes</li> </blockquote> <blockquote> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><li>Paste embedding (the default) places a copy of the source object in the receiving document, but does not create a link and does not provide automatic updates.</li> </blockquote> </ul><h3><a name="Objectoriented" id="Objectoriented"><span style="color: #0000ff">Object-oriented</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A technique that focuses programming design on the data and the user interfaces to the data.</p> <h3><a name="OBS" id="OBS"><span style="color: #0000ff">OBS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-O#OrganizationalBreakdownStructure">Organizational breakdown structure</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Observation" id="Observation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Observation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Manually and/or electronically viewing and recording behaviors of individuals or groups.</p> <h3><a name="OCR" id="OCR"><span style="color: #0000ff">OCR</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-O#OpticalCharacterReader">Optical character reader</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OfficePolitics" id="OfficePolitics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Office politics</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">How behavioral, ethical, and moral issues are addressed, and how power and influence are managed, in an organization.</p> <h3><a name="OffpressProof" id="OffpressProof"><span style="color: #0000ff">Off-press proof</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PrepressProof">prepress proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OffsetPrinting" id="OffsetPrinting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Offset printing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a rubber blanket to paper rather than directly from plate to paper.</p> <h3><a name="Offshoring" id="Offshoring"><span style="color: #0000ff">Offshoring</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A business strategy in which an organization transfers business processes to an external organization in the another country. See also <a href="Glossary-O#Outsourcing">outsourcing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OLE" id="OLE"><span style="color: #0000ff">OLE</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-O#ObjectLinkingAndEmbedding">Object linking and embedding</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Ombudsman" id="Ombudsman"><span style="color: #0000ff">Ombudsman/ombudsperson</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A neutral third party that researches complaints and suggests and/or implements solutions.</p> <h3><a name="OngoingProject" id="OngoingProject"><span style="color: #0000ff">Ongoing project</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project that has been through a complete budget cycle. A project that has been awarded but has not been completely implemented (this also includes pilots and prototypes).</p> <h3><a name="OnlineMarketing" id="OnlineMarketing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Online marketing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A form of marketing in which advertising is exclusively web- or e-mail based. See also <a href="Glossary-M#MarketingTypes">marketing types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OnlinePublishing" id="OnlinePublishing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Online publishing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-E#ElectronicPublishing">electronic publishing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Onomatopoeia" id="Onomatopoeia"><span style="color: #0000ff">Onomatopoeia</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Use of words to imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions to which the words refer. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Opacity" id="Opacity"><span style="color: #0000ff">Opacity</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The degree to which light is prevented from showing through.</p> <h3><a name="Opaque" id="Opaque"><span style="color: #0000ff">Opaque</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Not transparent.</p> <h3><a name="OpenParenthesis" id="OpenParenthesis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Open parenthesis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The character ( used at the beginning of a parenthetical expression. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CloseParentheses">close parenthesis</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#Parentheses">parentheses</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OpenSource" id="OpenSource"><span style="color: #0000ff">Open quote</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The character used to begin a quotation. This character can be double (“) or single (‘), curved or straight. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CloseQuote">close quote</a>, <a href="Glossary-Q#QuotationMarks">quotation marks</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#SmartQuotes">smart quotes</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OpenendedQuestion" id="OpenendedQuestion"><span style="color: #0000ff">Open-ended question</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A question that has more than one correct answer and that requires an individual to respond in their own words. Also referred to as subjective question.</p> <h3><a name="OpenendedTask" id="OpenendedTask"><span style="color: #0000ff">Open-ended task</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A performance task in which an individual must provide a solution or response to a problem that has no single correct answer.</p> <h3><a name="OpenresponseTask" id="OpenresponseTask"><span style="color: #0000ff">Open-response task</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A performance task in which there is a single correct response, but an individual must provide an answer rather than select from several possible answers.</p> <h3><a name="Opensource" id="Opensource"><span style="color: #0000ff">Open-source</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Applications that are available for others to use, adapt, and redistribute.</p> <h3><a name="OperatingBudget" id="OperatingBudget"><span style="color: #0000ff">Operating budget</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A reasonable, detailed projection of income and expenses during a specific time period.</p> <h3><a name="OperationalAsset" id="OperationalAsset"><span style="color: #0000ff">Operational (steady state) asset</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An asset or part of an asset that has been delivered and is performing the mission.</p> <h3><a name="OperationalProject" id="OperationalProject"><span style="color: #0000ff">Operational project</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Systems that are completely implemented (including legacy systems).</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><h3><a name="OperationalTesting" id="OperationalTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Operational testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component in its operational environment.</p> <h3><a name="OperationsManual" id="OperationsManual"><span style="color: #0000ff">Operations Manual</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that provides computer-control personnel and computer operators with a detailed operational description of the information system and its associated environments, such as machine room operations and procedures. <a href="">TEMPLATE</a></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><h3><a name="OpinionSurvey" id="OpinionSurvey"><span style="color: #0000ff">Opinion survey</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A market research study conducted to determine opinions on a specific topic. See also <a href="Glossary-A#AttitudeSurvey">attitude survey</a>, <a href="Glossary-E#EvaluationSurvey">evaluation survey</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#SatisfactionSurvey">satisfaction survey</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OPML" id="OPML"><span style="color: #0000ff">OPML</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-O#OutlineProcessorMarkupLanguage">Outline processor markup language</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OpportunityCost" id="OpportunityCost"><span style="color: #0000ff">Opportunity cost</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The rate of return expected if an alternative course of action were taken. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CostOfCapital">cost of capital</a>, <a href="Glossary-C#CostTypes">cost types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OpticalCharacterReader" id="OpticalCharacterReader"><span style="color: #0000ff">Optical character reader (OCR)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A device that can scan and translate printed text into digital information.</p> <h3><a name="OpticalScanner" id="OpticalScanner"><span style="color: #0000ff">Optical scanner</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A device that can scan and translate printed text and images into digital information.</p> <h3><a name="OptinPolicy" id="OptinPolicy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Opt-in policy</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Marketing that requires a potential customer to select the services they want and to specify how the company can use any information they provide. Also called permission-based marketing. See also <a href="Glossary-M#MarketingTypes">marketing types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OptoutPolicy" id="OptoutPolicy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Opt-out policy</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Marketing in which an existing customer receives electronic communications without giving express permission for that communication. Also called permission-based marketing. See also <a href="Glossary-M#MarketingTypes">marketing types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Optimize" id="Optimize"><span style="color: #0000ff">Optimize</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">To reduce the time it takes to access a web site.</p> <h3><a name="OrderofmagnitudeEstimate" id="OrderofmagnitudeEstimate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Order-of-magnitude estimate</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-E#Estimate">estimate</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OrdinalScale" id="OrdinalScale"><span style="color: #0000ff">Ordinal scale</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A measurement scale in which there is no set distance between categories and categories can be ranked in order from smallest to largest; for example, excellent, good, fair, and poor. See also <a href="Glossary-I#IntervalScale">interval scale</a>, <a href="Glossary-R#RatioScale">ratio scale</a>, <a href="Glossary-N#NominalScale">nominal scale</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OrganizationalBreakdownStructure" id="OrganizationalBreakdownStructure"><span style="color: #0000ff">Organizational breakdown structure (OBS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A preliminary version of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) that identifies organizational relationships and is used to assign work responsibilities.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><h3><a name="OrganizationalCapital" id="OrganizationalCapital"><span style="color: #0000ff">Organizational capital</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The ability of an organization to create products and services for the market. See also <a href="Glossary-H#HumanCapital">human capital</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#InnovationCapital">innovation capital</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#IntellectualCapital">intellectual capital</a>, <a href="Glossary-M#MarketCapital">market capital</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OrganizationalCommunication" id="OrganizationalCommunication"><span style="color: #0000ff">Organizational communication</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The communication processes and dynamics in an organization.</p> <h3><a name="OrganizationalCulture" id="OrganizationalCulture"><span style="color: #0000ff">Organizational culture</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The attitudes, assumptions, behaviors, beliefs, and values shared by the people in an organization.</p> <h3><a name="OrganizationalMemory" id="OrganizationalMemory"><span style="color: #0000ff">Organizational memory</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Stored information an organization can access and use for current decisions.</p> <h3><a name="OrganizationalPlanning" id="OrganizationalPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Organizational planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.</p> <h3><a name="Orphan" id="Orphan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Orphan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The first line of a paragraph that appears by itself at the bottom of a column or page. See also <a href="Glossary-W#Widow">widow</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OtherDirectCosts" id="OtherDirectCosts"><span style="color: #0000ff">Other direct costs</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A group of accounting elements that can be isolated to specific tasks, other than labor and material; for example, travel, computer time, and services. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CostTypes">cost types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OutcomeMeasure" id="OutcomeMeasure"><span style="color: #0000ff">Outcome measure</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An assessment of the results of a program activity compared to its intended purpose. An outcome-based contract is often ideal for non-routine efforts.</p> <h3><a name="OutcomebasedEducation" id="OutcomebasedEducation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Outcome-based education</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An education model that focuses on measuring student performance.</p> <h3><a name="OutlineProcessorMarkupLanguage" id="OutlineProcessorMarkupLanguage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Outline processor markup language (OPML)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An XML-based format that allows applications to exchange information that is structured as an outline. See also <a href="Glossary-W#WebFeed">web feed</a>, <a href="Glossary-W#WebFeedFormats">web feed formats</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Outlier" id="Outlier"><span style="color: #0000ff">Outlier</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In statistics, an observation in a data set that is significantly different in value from all others.</p> <h3><a name="OutofhomeAds" id="OutofhomeAds"><span style="color: #0000ff">Out-of-home ad</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A paid announcement that reaches a consumer outdoors; for example, a billboard or a bus ad.</p> <h3><a name="Output" id="Output"><span style="color: #0000ff">Output data</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Data that is produced as a result of executing a test case or procedure, and used to verify test results and successful completion of the test case or procedure. See also <a href="Glossary-D#DataTypes">data types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="OutputMeasure" id="OutputMeasure"><span style="color: #0000ff">Output measure</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The tabulation, calculation, or recording of activity or effort that can be expressed in a quantitative or qualitative manner. For routine efforts, an output contract may be more desirable.</p> <h3><a name="Outsourcing" id="Outsourcing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Outsourcing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A business strategy in which an organization transfers business processes to an external organization in the same country. See also <a href="Glossary-O#Offshoring">offshoring</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Ovation" id="Ovation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Ovation (Adobe)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A tool for building multimedia presentations from Microsoft PowerPoint slides.</p> <h3><a name="OverRun" id="OverRun"><span style="color: #0000ff">Over run</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Documents printed in addition to the original order quantity. Also called overage.</p> <h3><a name="Overage" id="Overage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Overage</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-O#OverRun">over run</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Overhead" id="Overhead"><span style="color: #0000ff">Overhead</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Costs incurred in the operation of a business which cannot be directly related to the individual products or services being produced. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CostTypes">cost types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Overlap" id="Overlap"><span style="color: #0000ff">Overlap</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-L#Lead">lead</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Overlay" id="Overlay"><span style="color: #0000ff">Overlay</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A layer of tissue, acetate, or other material taped to a mechanical, photo, or proof, and used write instructions or to separate colors. See also b<a href="Glossary-B#BaseArt">ase art</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Oversight" id="Oversight"><span style="color: #0000ff">Oversight</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project surveillance method that is an intrusive process of gathering contractor product or process data through on-site, in-series involvement in the process.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><h3><a name="OwnersEquity" id="OwnersEquity"><span style="color: #0000ff">Owner’s equity</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The ownership interest shareholders have in the assets of a corporation. Also called net worth.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px"> </p><h3><a name="OxfordComma" id="OxfordComma"><span style="color: #0000ff">Oxford comma</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#SerialComma">serial comma</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Oxymoron" id="Oxymoron"><span style="color: #0000ff">Oxymoron</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The combination of two normally contradictory words. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <p> </p> <p>Return to <a href="">Glossary</a> home</p> </span> <!-- attachments --> <!-- comments --> <!-- comments --> </td>

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