Glossary - M
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Automatic translation by computer. Also called automated translation. See also translation.
A project document that defines the scope and plans for continued systems maintenance.
A management technique used to determine whether a particular product or service can be produced or performed cost effectively by the performing organization or should be contracted out to another organization. The analysis considers both the direct costs of procuring the product or service and administrative costs associated with managing the contractor.
A management style in which management focuses only on situations in which there are significant differences between actual results and planned results. See also management styles.
A management theory that calls for managing people based on documented work statements that are mutually agreed upon by manager and subordinate. Progress on these work statement is periodically reviewed and compensation is tied to performance. See also management styles.
A management style in which a leader is visible and helpful by walking around to listen, share ideas, and compliment efforts. See also management styles.
A system that provides the information needed to effectively manage an organization.
A separately planned amount of money or time intended to reduce the impact of missed cost, schedule, or performance objectives, which are impossible to plan for.
An individual whose primary high-level job functions are budgeting, coordinating, directing, organizing, planning, reporting, and staffing.
A requirement that is dictated by Federal regulation or directive and is critical for system go-live.
Integration of all aspects of planning for the resources in a manufacturing organization.
An author's original form of work (hand written, typed, or on a storage medium).
The white spaces surrounding text blocks.
To write editing or composition instructions on a document.
The ability of an organization to interact with customers, suppliers, partners, and other external stakeholders. See also human capital, innovation capital, intellectual capital, organizational capital.
Research conducted to determine the buying habits of individuals.
The combination of traditional marketing and public relations with social media and other Internet-based initiatives to optimize an organization’s ability to reach buyers directly.
A mix of product, price, promotion, and place (distribution) that best meets the needs of targeted customers.
Qualitative and quantitative research performed to help an organization best target and reach their customers.
The process of concentrating an organization’s limited resources on the most optimal sales opportunities.
See affiliate marketing, affinity marketing, direct marketing, internal marketing, neuromarketing, niche marketing, online marketing, permission-based marketing, relationship marketing, technical marketing, viral marketing.
See copy writing.
A theory of motivation in which a person’s needs arise in an ordered sequence: physical needs, safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.
The highest level summary schedule for a project, depicting overall project phasing and all major interfaces, contractual milestones, and project elements.
A graphic image at the top of a web page which can contain image maps, photos, shapes, and/or text.
An organizational structure in which some form of lateral authority, influence, or communication overlays the vertical hierarchy, creating dual lines of authority, responsibility, and accountability where employees report to both a functional manager with quality responsibility and a business/product manager with profit responsibility; for example, where a project manager shares responsibility with functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of integrated project team members.
A defined position in an achievement scale that establishes the attainment of certain capabilities.
The value that results from dividing the sum of all values by the number of values in data set. Also called average.
Camera-ready copy annotated with printer’s instructions.
Overlays attached to a mechanical which are used to denote color breaks, one overlay for each color to be printed.
In statistics, the middle value in a data set.
Process in which a neutral third party facilitates communication and negotiation among disputing parties to find a mutually acceptable resolution. See also arbitration, assessment, mediation-arbitration.
A social networking site that helps connect groups of people who have shared interests.
Interrelated perceptions of reality that people build as they draw inferences and gather information about the world that surrounds them.
A relationship in which one person assists in the personal and professional development of another, outside the normal manager/subordinate relationship.
A statistical technique that distills the results of several studies into one overall estimate of the effect of an intervention. See also systematic review.
An awareness of one's own learning processes.
Data that describes other data; that is, the information that a database or application stores to describe an organization’s business data. See also data types.
The process of dividing data assets into manageable groups based on common characteristics.
An implied comparison using words figuratively. See also rhetorical strategies.
An HTML tag that can contain keywords and descriptive information used by search engines in query results.
The substitution of one word or phrase for another that is closely associated. See also rhetorical strategies.
Units of measurement used to assess, calculate, or determine progress performance in terms of monetary, schedule, or quality results.
An individual site or group of pages connected to a parent site accessed by clicking on an ad.
Musical instrument digital file format.
A scheduled project checkpoint that signifies the completion of a phase, major deliverable, or set of related deliverables for which an individual or team is accountable and which is used to measure progress.
A summary-level schedule that shows major milestones.
A brainstorming tool that creates a visual representation of complex ideas, information, and data, and their interconnections.
The process of clicking on all elements of an interface when it is not clear which items are active ‘clickable’ elements and which are content.
An approach to instruction and documentation, defined by John Carroll in The Nurnberg Funnel, that emphasizes the importance of realistic action- and task-based activities and experiences for effective learning and information seeking.
A defect that is not likely to materially reduce the usability of the product for its intended purpose, or is a departure from established standards having little bearing on the effective use or operation of the product. See also critical defect, defect, major defect.
A statement of purpose and motivation for an organization or team, which can include definitions of the business and the customers, strategies, goals, metrics, standards, and values, meant to motivate, inspire, and guide decision making throughout the organization.
Carefully organized steps taken to reduce or eliminate the probability of a risk occurring or the impact of a risk on the project.
A project that has both development/modernization/enhancement (DME) and steady state aspects. For example, a mixed life-cycle project could include a prototype or module of a system that is operational with the remainder of the system in DME phases; or, a service contract for steady state on the current system with a DME requirement for system upgrade or replacement.
An audio program that can be received on cell phones or mobile devices. Also called mobilecast, movlog.
A pocket-sized computing device, such as a smartphone or PDA.
A blog that is posted and maintained using a mobile phone. See also blog types.
A simulation of a final published product. Also called dummy.
In statistics, the most frequently occurring value in a data set.
A representation of the components of a process or system to assist in understanding, analyzing, improving, and/or replacing the process.
Creating a graphic representation of the activities and subprocesses within a process along with their interrelationships. Also called flowcharting.
A change, usually written, to a project’s scope or the terms of a contract.
An instructional package that provides the information required to master specific knowledge and skills.
The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan.
The owner’s exclusive right to a copyright, patent, service mark, trademark, or trade secret for a specific period of time.
A typeface in which every character is the same width. See also proportionally spaced type.
A technique that performs a project simulation many times to calculate a distribution of likely results.
A special effect caused when the mouse moves over a graphic image; for example, color changes or animation.
Apple QuickTime digital movie file format.
Mobile video blog. See also blog types.
MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3 file format.
Microsoft Project file format.
Audio, video, email, or applications broadcast over the web.
Communication that does not exclude or offend anyone due to unintended cultural misunderstandings.
Communication that combines two or more mediums, such as animation, audio, graphics, text, and video.
Combining elements—including animation, audio, photos, and video—to communicate a concept or information, usually in an interactive form, via an interactive CD or DVD, kiosk, or website.
A multimedia accelerator in Intel Pentium processors.
Software that is usable by several types of computers or operating systems.
An Internet protocol that allows the exchange of various file types, including application programs, ASCII text, audio, images, and video.
A metric that measures more than one variable.
Software that records what notes are being played, when, and for how long.
A social networking site that allows users to meet new people and allows friends to keep in touch.
An open source relational database management system.
People who conduct market research disguised as customers; for example, to compare prices or evaluate customer service.
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