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Variance at completion.


The process of evaluating a finished product to ensure compliance with requirements. See also testing.


A degree to which an assessment instrument consistently measures what it is designed to measure.


The shade (darkness) or tint (lightness) of a color. Also called brightness, lightness, shade, tone.

Value engineering (VE)

A creative approach for optimizing life-cycle costs, saving time, increasing profits, improving quality, expanding market share, solving problems, and/or using resources more effectively.

Value proposition

The logical link between action and reward.

Values Statement

A formal description of an organization’s beliefs and guiding principles.


An element in an experimental study that is either manipulated (the independent variable) or monitored for any resultant change (the dependent variable).

Variable types

See confounding variable, continuous variable, discrete variable, independent variable, qualitative variable, quantitative variable.


The actual or potential deviation from an intended or budgeted amount or plan. Also, the difference between the planned and actual time, cost, or performance.

Variance analysis

A comparison of actual project results to planned or expected results.

Variance at completion (VAC)

In the earned value method, the difference between the baseline and actual budget at completion.


Liquid applied to paper as a coating for appearance and protection.


Version description document.


Value engineering.

Vector graphic

A graphic image drawn in shapes and lines.

Vector graphics

Graphics consisting of objects, each of which can be separately manipulated—sized, moved, grouped, ungrouped, and positioned to the back/front.


A distributor of commonly available goods or services when requirements and specifications are well defined.

Vendor fixes

Software fixes supplied by the vendor to fix anomalies reported by users. These software fixes are formal releases that the vendor plans and controls.

Verbatim translation

Complete, word-by-word translation of text. Also called literal translation. See also translation.


The process of determining whether the products of a given phase of the software development life cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are inspection, review, and testing.

Verification, validation, and test (VV&T)

A process used to prove that a solution meets both specification and user requirements as evidenced by test and operational results. See also independent verification, validation, and test.


A particular iteration of an electronic file.

Version control

A system used to manage the updating and distribution of information.

Version Description Document (VDD)

The primary configuration control document used to track and control versions of software to be released to the operational environment. The version description document identifies and describes the software as delivered, summarizes the features and contents for the software build, and identifies and describes the version of the software configuration item being delivered (including all changes to the software configuration item since the last VDD was issued), provides instructions for installing the software, and provides references on how to maintain the software.


On a two-sided document, the odd-numbered page that appears on the left side. See also recto.


See video podcast.


A series of consecutive, individual framed images that simulate motion and interactivity.

Video blogging

See Vlogging.


See Vlog.


Real-time voice and video transmitted using telecommunications services.

Video podcast

Online delivery of video on demand. Also called vidcast, vodcast.

View through

See latent click through.

Viral marketing

Any marketing technique that causes a marketing message to pass to other people or sites; for example, using social networks to advertise or produce brand exposure. See also marketing types.

Virtual community

A community on the Internet where people share common interests.


A program secretly installed on a computer, typically to cause harm, which can replicate and transmit itself to other computers.

Vision Statement

A formal document that uses positive and inspiring language to define how an organization or team serves its customers or the desired future state of an organization.

Visionary leadership

A leadership style in which the leader believes in a vision and inspires others by explaining how they contribute toward the vision. See also leadership styles.

Visual design

The process of using typography and images to present information.

Visual rhetoric

Communication that uses images to convey meaning.

Visual Studio (Microsoft)

A development tool suite that uses drag-and-drop and object linking and embedding (OLE), not HTML, to publish web pages. Formerly called Internet Studio.


A blog that primarily consists of video. Also called video blog. See also blog types.


The process of posting a video, with or without audio, to a web page. See also blogging, podcasting.

Voice recognition

Software that recognizes spoken commands.


See video podcast.

Volume testing

Testing to confirm that the program can accommodate any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files) and that these values will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation.

vs. (versus)

Latin abbreviation for “against.”


Verification, validation, and test.

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