Return to Glossary home


Forecast at completion.


One of the styles in a type family; for example, the italic style in the Arial family. Also called typeface.


A social networking site that allows users to share videos, text, and applications.


A collaborative process that uses a neutral third party to help a group reach a goal or complete a task in a way that is acceptable to all participants.


A person who acts as a neutral third party and leads a discussion or activity to extract feedback and information or to reach resolution on a dispute or conflict.

Fact finding

A process in which a neutral third-party investigates the facts relevant to a dispute.

Fade-out blue

See non-repro blue.


A collection of typefaces intended to be used together; for example, the Arial family. Also called type family.


Frequently asked questions.

Fast tracking

Compressing a project schedule by doing some activities in parallel that would normally be done in sequence.


See spread.


Functional configuration audit.


Functional Design Specification.


An assessment of the capability for successful implementation; the possibility, probability, and suitability of accomplishment.

Feasibility study

The methods and techniques used to examine technical and cost data to determine the economic potential and practicality of a project.


Blurring a graphic image by gradually dissipating the edge.

Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

A United States law that requires federal agencies to develop, document, and implement agency-wide programs to provide information security.


An XML-formatted file that allows blog or podcast subscribers to access content without visiting the web site where the blog or podcast is located.


The receiver’s response to the sender.


Free float; finish-to-finish.


Firm-fixed-price contract.

Field trial

The evaluation of a program or product in the intended use setting.


An illustration that appears in running text. See also table.

File compression

Process for reducing the size of one or more files. Also called archiving, zipping.

File transfer protocol (FTP)

A standard, protocol, and channel for transmitting large files over the Internet.

Final Cut Pro (Apple)

A video editing production tool that supports real-time editing and a variety of formats.

Final design

The documentation that describes the ultimate “as delivered” configuration to provide for replication.

Final Report

A retrospective report that describes experiences that formally closes the current project and that may benefit future projects. Also called post-implementation report.

Financial management

The process of managing the financial resources of a business’ accounting, financial reporting, budgeting, accounts receivable, risk management, and so on to maximize value.


A web site’s ability to be found easily using directories, search engines, and other online resources.

Finish date

A point in time that is associated with an activity’s completion.

Finish-to-finish (FF)

See logical relationship.

Finish-to-start (FS)

See logical relationship.


A security system that prevents unauthorized access to a computer.

Fireworks (Macromedia)

A web graphics design tool that can create animated GIFs, create rollovers for web buttons, combine vector and bitmap graphics, optimize graphics, and reduce file sizes.

Firm-fixed-price contract (FFP)

A type of contract where the buyer pays the vendor a set amount, as defined in the contract, regardless of the seller’s costs.

First person

A sentence or part of speech that refers to the speaker or writer. See also second person, third person.

Fiscal year

The accounting or tax year, as opposed to the calendar year. Income statements summarize earnings over the fiscal year, and balance sheets usually summarize assets, liabilities, and equities at the end of the fiscal year.

Fishbone diagram

See Ishikawa diagram.


Federal Information Security Management Act.

Fixed assets

Tangible property owned by the corporation or entity, that is not used up, consumed, or converted into cash during normal business operations. Factory machinery, buildings, and large computer systems are typical fixed assets. See also current assets.

Fixed-price contract

See firm-fixed-price contract.

Fixed-price-incentive-fee contract (FPIF)

A type of contract where the buyer pays the vendor a set amount, as defined in the contract, and the vendor can earn an additional amount if they meet defined performance criteria.


Editable Adobe Flash movie file format.

Flash (Adobe)

A vector graphic animation application that creates graphics that look the same across all browsers that have the plug-in installed.


Film clip file format.

Flexible work arrangements

Schedules that allow employees to build their work hours around their personal responsibilities; for example, flextime and telecommuting.


An online photo sharing web site for photoblogging.


The amount of time that an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish. Also called path float, slack, total float. See also free float.


See work flow.

Flow diagram

A graphical representation of work flow and the logical sequence of work elements without regard to time scale. See also flowchart, swimlane diagram.


A graphical representation of a complete process which shows how the inputs, activities, decisions, and outputs relate. See also flow diagram, swimlane diagram.


See modeling.

Flush left

Text aligned on the left margin and uneven on the right side. Also called left justified, ragged right. See also alignment styles.

Flush right

Text aligned on the right margin and uneven on the left side. Also called ragged left, right justified. See also alignment styles.


Flash video file format.


The visible side of the paper that is glued to the front and back of a casebound book. See also case bind.

Focus group

A small group of people brought together to provide their views on a particular topic (concept, product, service, plan, etc.).

Foil emboss

To foil stamp and emboss an image. Also called heat stamp.

Foil stamp

A printing method that releases foil from its backing when a heated die is applied. Also called block print, hot foil stamp, stamp.

Fold marks

Marks indicating where a fold is to occur in a printed document.


A gatefold sheet that is bound into a publication, typically for an oversized chart or illustration. Also called gatefold, pullout.


A page number, which often appears in headers or footers.


A single width, weight, and style of a typeface.

Font family

See family.

Font smoothing

See anti-aliasing.


One or two lines of information (for example, document title, page number, and date) that appear at the bottom of each page in a document. Also called running foot. See also header.

Footer navigation

Navigational elements at the bottom of a web page that link to copyright statements, legal disclaimers, terms of use, feedback links, and so on. See also in-page navigation, primary navigation.


A reference or explanatory note at the bottom of a page. See also end note.


An estimate and prediction of future conditions and events based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast.

Forecast at completion (FAC)

Scheduled cost for a task.


An introductory note in a document. See also front matter.


The initial stage of team development, in which team members identify interpersonal and task boundaries and establish dependency relationships. See also adjourning, norming, performing, storming, team development stages.

Formulative evaluation

An evaluation performed before or during a course to improve course segments in response to discovered weaknesses.

Forward pass

The calculation of the early start and early finish for the uncompleted portions of all network activities.

Four-color process printing

Printing that simulates full-color images using black, cyan, magenta, and yellow. Also called color process printing, full-color printing, process printing.


Fixed-price-incentive-fee contract.


Frames per second.


See sentence fragment.


A single graphic image in a sequence or a single picture in a computerized movie.


Multiple, separately scrollable areas on a web page.

Frames per second (FPS)

The number of images displayed each second to give digital video the illusion of motion.


Functional Requirements Document.

Free float (FF)

The amount of time that an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities. See also float.

Freehand (Macromedia)

A vector-based program used to produce charts, illustrations, maps, and logos.


Software distributed on the web at no charge.


The numerical value that represents how often an event occurs, typically within a specific time period.

Frequency table

A graphical display that shows how often a value or set of values occurs for a specific variable. See also plot types.

Frequently asked questions (FAQs)

A list of common questions and answers in a particular topic area.

Front end

The interface that allows a user to access an application. See also back end.

Front matter

Supplemental information at the front of a document. Also called preliminary matter. See also acknowledgements, back matter, foreword, preface, rights page, table of contents, table of figures, table of tables, title page.




Functional specification package.


File transfer protocol.

Full acquisition

The procurement and implementation of a capital project or useful segment/module of a capital project. Full acquisition occurs after all planning activities are complete and the organization’s Executive Review Committee or Investment Review Board selects and approves the proposed technical approach and project plan, and establishes the baseline cost, schedule and performance goals for this phase of the investment.

Full-color printing

See four-color process printing.

FullShot (InBit)

Screen capture software that allows the user to edit and annotate images.

Fully justified

See justified.

Functional baseline

The initial approved functional configuration identification that describes a product’s functional characteristics (product requirements). See also baseline types.

Functional configuration audit (FCA)

An engineering audit of a configuration item or system that is conducted to verify that the development of a configuration item has been completed satisfactorily, that the item has achieved the performance and functional characteristics specified in the functional or allocated configuration identification, and that its operational and support documents are complete and satisfactory. The FCA, with the results of the physical configuration audit (PCA), provides the decision point to confirm that the design is ready for either integration or replication.

Functional decomposition

A technique used during planning, analysis, and design to create a functional hierarchy for the software.

Functional Design Specification (FDS)

A project document that provides the basis of the design of the system and is used to verify and validate the system during the testing, ensuring that all the required functions are present and operate correctly.

Functional manager

A manager who is responsible for activities in a specialized office or function, such as manufacturing, finance, sales, or marketing.

Functional organization

An organizational structure in which staff are grouped hierarchically by specialty; for example, accounting at the top level, further divided into accounts payable, accounts receivable, and so on.

Functional requirements

Requirements that specify the inputs to and outputs from the system, and behavioral relationships between them. A requirement that specifies a function that a software component, product, or system must be able to perform.

Functional Requirements Document (FRD)

A formal statement of a system’s functional requirements, it serves the same purpose as a contract the developers agree to provide the capabilities specified from the user community. The FRD is solution independent and is a statement of what the system is to do not of how it works. Since the FRD does not commit the developers to a design, there are not any references to the use of a specific technology in the FRD.

Functional specification

A description of work to be performed in terms of the end purpose or results, instead of the specific procedures, processes, or equipment to be used in the performance of the work.

Functional specification package (FSP)

The group of documents that provide a blueprint for system design.

Functional Test Plan

A plan for testing each function across one or more units. The plan describes how the functional testing occurs and the test procedure/test cases that will be used. The plan includes procedures for creating the test environment that allows all functions to be executed; the entry and exit criteria for starting and ending the functional testing period; and the schedule followed for starting and ending each test.

Functional test procedures

Procedures for each function or combination of functions to be tested. Procedures fully describe how the function is tested. Expected output from each test procedure is identified to compare the planned output to actual output.

Functional testing

Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a software product with specified functional requirements. Testing that focuses on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. See also black-box testing.

Fused sentence

See run-on sentence.


Return to Glossary home