Revision for “Glossary – S” created on May 4, 2018 @ 22:08:54

Glossary - S
<td id="content_col"> <!-- edit page button --> <!-- page content --> <h1 id="pageTitle">Glossary - S</h1> <span><p>Return to <a href="">Glossary</a> home</p> <h3><a name="SaddlestitchBinding" id="SaddlestitchBinding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Saddle-stitch binding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A type of document binding in which the pages are stapled along one edge. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BindingTypes">binding types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SalesGeneralAndAdministrativeCosts" id="SalesGeneralAndAdministrativeCosts"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sales, general, and administrative costs (SG&amp;A)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Expenses for sales, general management, and administration; for example, insurance and legal fees. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CostTypes">cost types</a>, <a href="">overhead</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Sample" id="Sample"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sample</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A smaller but representative part of a larger population being studied.</p> <h3><a name="SanityTesting" id="SanityTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sanity testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if it is basically operational. See also <a href="Glossary-S#SmokeTesting">smoke testing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SansSerif" id="SansSerif"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sans serif</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A typeface without serifs. See also <a href="Glossary-S#Serif">serif</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SarbanesOxley" id="SarbanesOxley"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sarbanes-Oxley</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A Federal law in the United States that requires strengthened corporate accounting standards for all publicly held firms.</p> <h3><a name="SatisfactionSurvey" id="SatisfactionSurvey"><span style="color: #0000ff">Satisfaction survey</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A market research study that measures and evaluates customers’ level of satisfaction with an organization, their products, or their services. See also <a href="Glossary-A#AttitudeSurvey">attitude survey</a>, <a href="Glossary-E#EvaluationSurvey">evaluation survey</a>, <a href="">opinion survey</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Saturation" id="Saturation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Saturation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The color intensity of an image; a high saturation image seems bright, a low saturation image seems dull. An image with no saturation is called grayscale.</p> <h3><a name="Scaffolding" id="Scaffolding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scaffolding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Breaking a complex task into smaller tasks, modeling the task, supporting learning, then shifting responsibility to the students.</p> <h3><a name="ScalabilityTesting" id="ScalabilityTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scalability testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Performance testing focused on ensuring that the application under test gracefully handles increases in workload.</p> <h3><a name="ScalableVectorGraphics" id="ScalableVectorGraphics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scalable vector graphics (SVG)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An XML-based file format standard for vector graphics.</p> <h3><a name="ScatterDiagram" id="ScatterDiagram"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scatter diagram</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#Scatterplot">scatterplot</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Scatterplot" id="Scatterplot"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scatterplot</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical display of related information that consists of points representing a group of data, showing the relationship between two variables. Also called scatter diagram. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PlotTypes">plot types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Schedule" id="Schedule"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A time-sequenced plan of activities or tasks used to direct and control project execution.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleAnalysis" id="ScheduleAnalysis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule analysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-N#NetworkAnalysis">network analysis</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleBaseline" id="ScheduleBaseline"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule baseline</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An approved project schedule that serves as the basis for measuring and reporting schedule performance. Also called schedule baseline. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BaselineTypes">baseline types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleCompression" id="ScheduleCompression"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule compression</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-D#DurationCompression">duration compression</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleControl" id="ScheduleControl"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule control</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Controlling changes to the project schedule.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleDevelopment" id="ScheduleDevelopment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule development</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Analyzing activity durations, activity sequences, and resource requirements to create a project schedule.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleEstimation" id="ScheduleEstimation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule estimation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The estimated duration of a project based on the size of the project, the available resources, historical productivity data, and past experience. See also <a href="Glossary-P#ProgramEvaluationAndReviewTechnique">program evaluation and review technique</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SchedulePerformanceIndex" id="SchedulePerformanceIndex"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule performance index (SPI)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The schedule efficiency ratio of earned value accomplished against the planned value, which describes what portion of the planned schedule was actually accomplished.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduleVariance" id="ScheduleVariance"><span style="color: #0000ff">Schedule variance (SV)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The variance between the actual and planned schedules.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduledFinishDate" id="ScheduledFinishDate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scheduled finish date (SF)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The point in time at which work is schedule to finish on an activity. Also called planned finish date.</p> <h3><a name="ScheduledStartDate" id="ScheduledStartDate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scheduled start date (SS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The point in time at which work is schedule to start on an activity. Also called planned start date.</p> <h3><a name="ScienceWriting" id="ScienceWriting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Science writing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Writing that clearly and concisely conveys complex scientific information through all media normally devoted to informing the public.</p> <h3><a name="ScientificWriting" id="ScientificWriting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scientific knowledge</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Knowledge that provides the tools to describe and explain how the world works. See also <a href="Glossary-K#Knowledge">knowledge</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SCM" id="SCM"><span style="color: #0000ff">SCM</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SoftwareConfigurationManagement">Software configuration management</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SCMP" id="SCMP"><span style="color: #0000ff">SCMP</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SoftwareConfigurationManagementPlan">Software Configuration Management Plan</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Scope" id="Scope"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The sum of the products and services the project will provide. See <a href="Glossary-P#ProductScope">product scope</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#ProjectScope">project scope</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeBaseline" id="ScopeBaseline"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope baseline</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-B#Baseline">baseline</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeChange" id="ScopeChange"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope change</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Any change to the project scope.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeChangeControl" id="ScopeChangeControl"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope change control</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of influencing the factors that cause scope changes to help ensure that they are beneficial, determining that a scope change has occurred, and managing the changes if and when they occur. Also called scope change management.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeChangeManagement" id="ScopeChangeManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope change management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#ScopeChangeControl">scope change control</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeCreep" id="ScopeCreep"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope creep</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A progressive increase in project scope, causing more work and increases in time and budget.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeDefinition" id="ScopeDefinition"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope definition</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Subdividing project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better control.</p> <h3><a name="ScopeManagement" id="ScopeManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The ongoing process of determining and prioritizing which project requirements can be implemented, given available time and resources.</p> <h3><a name="ScopePlanning" id="ScopePlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scope planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of progressively elaborating the work of the project, which includes developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, major deliverables, and project objectives.</p> <h3><a name="Score" id="Score"><span style="color: #0000ff">Score</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A straight line compressed into paper so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called <a href="Glossary-C#Crease">crease</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Scorecard" id="Scorecard"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scorecard</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-B#BalancedScorecard">balanced scorecard</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScoringGuide" id="ScoringGuide"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scoring guide</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A set of guidelines that describe what is being assessed, provide a scoring scale, and help the instructor correctly evaluate a student. See also <a href="Glossary-R#Rubrics">rubrics</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Screen" id="Screen"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screen</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Color that does not contain 100% of cyan, magenta, or black. Also called halftone line screen.</p> <h3><a name="ScreenCapture" id="ScreenCapture"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screen capture</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">All or part of a computer screen saved as an image.</p> <h3><a name="ScreenCaptureSoftware" id="ScreenCaptureSoftware"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screen capture software</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#FullShot">FullShot</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#SnagIt">SnagIt</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ScreenMagnifier" id="ScreenMagnifier"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screen magnifier</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A software program that magnifies a portion of a computer screen.</p> <h3><a name="ScreenReader" id="ScreenReader"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screen reader</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A software program that uses synthetic language to read digital documents to the user.</p> <h3><a name="ScreenSaver" id="ScreenSaver"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screen saver</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A program that displays moving graphics when a computer is not in use.</p> <h3><a name="ScreeningInterview" id="ScreeningInterview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Screening interview</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An interview to qualify a candidate before meeting with a hiring authority for possible selection. See also <a href="Glossary-I#Interview">interview</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Scribus" id="Scribus"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scribus</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An open source page layout tool for Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows, which offers professional publishing features.</p> <h3><a name="Scrum" id="Scrum"><span style="color: #0000ff">Scrum</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An agile development methodology use to gain dramatic team productivity improvements. See also <a href="Glossary-P#ProjectManagementMethodologies">project management methodologies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SCSI" id="SCSI"><span style="color: #0000ff">SCSI</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SmallComputerSystemsInterface">Small computer systems interface</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Scurve" id="Scurve"><span style="color: #0000ff">S-curve</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical display of cumulative costs, labor hours, percentage of work, or other quantities, plotted against time.</p> <h3><a name="SDLC" id="SDLC"><span style="color: #0000ff">SDLC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SystemsDevelopmentLifeCycle">Systems development life cycle</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SearchAndRetrieval" id="SearchAndRetrieval"><span style="color: #0000ff">Search and retrieval</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of searching web pages for specified words and returning a list of matching documents</p> <h3><a name="SearchEngine" id="SearchEngine"><span style="color: #0000ff">Search engine</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A program that searches web pages for specified words and returns a list of matching documents.</p> <h3><a name="SecondPerson" id="SecondPerson"><span style="color: #0000ff">Second person</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A sentence or part of speech that refers to the person being spoken to. See also <a href="Glossary-F#FirstPerson">first person</a>, <a href="Glossary-T#ThirdPerson">third person</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Section508" id="Section508"><span style="color: #0000ff">Section 508</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Legislation in the United States—specifically, Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d)—that requires Federal agencies to develop, procure, maintain, and use electronic and information technology that is accessible to people with disabilities.</p> <h3><a name="SecurityPlan" id="SecurityPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Security Plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project document that describes the development strategy for security controls that will be implemented in the project. <a href="">TEMPLATE</a></p> <h3><a name="SecurityTestAndEvaluation" id="SecurityTestAndEvaluation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Security test and evaluation (ST&amp;E)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Examination and analysis of an IT system to ensure that proper security measures are in effect.</p> <h3><a name="SecurityTesting" id="SecurityTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Security testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing to confirm that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.</p> <h3><a name="Segmentation" id="Segmentation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Segmentation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Separating a market into subsets of potential customers who share common attributes.</p> <h3><a name="SEI" id="SEI"><span style="color: #0000ff">SEI</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SoftwareEngineeringInstitute">Software Engineering Institute</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SelfAppraisal" id="SelfAppraisal"><span style="color: #0000ff">Self appraisal</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A method in which an employee evaluates his own performance and then discusses the findings with his manager. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PeerReview">peer review</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceReview">performance review</a>, <a href="GlosNums.html#360DegreeReview">360-degree review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SelfdirectedLearning" id="SelfdirectedLearning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Self-directed learning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A student’s ability to decide what to learn, how to learn it, and how to know when the learning is complete.</p> <h3><a name="SelfmanagedTeam" id="SelfmanagedTeam"><span style="color: #0000ff">Self-managed team</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A small group of employees who are empowered to manage themselves and their work on a daily basis.</p> <h3><a name="SelfpacedLearning" id="SelfpacedLearning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Self-paced learning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Learning in which the student controls the flow of course material on the Internet or CD-ROM.</p> <h3><a name="SEM" id="SEM"><span style="color: #0000ff">SEM</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SoftwareEngineeringMethodology">Software engineering methodology</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SemanticTranslation" id="SemanticTranslation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Semantic translation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A translation that attempts to convey the exact contextual meaning of the original text, considering the limitations of the target language's semantic and syntactic structures. See also <a href="Glossary-T#Translation">translation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Semiotics" id="Semiotics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Semiotics</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The study of signs and symbols.</p> <h3><a name="SemistructuredInterview" id="SemistructuredInterview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Semi-structured interview</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An interview in which topics are available for discussion but there is flexibility to pursue other issues as they arise. See also <a href="Glossary-I#Interview">interview</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SensitivityAnalysis" id="SensitivityAnalysis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sensitivity analysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An assessment of the impact that a change will have on the expected outcome of a process or project.</p> <h3><a name="SentenceFragment" id="SentenceFragment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sentence fragment</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A grammatically incomplete sentence. Also called fragment.</p> <h3><a name="SentenceStyle" id="SentenceStyle"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sentence style</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A capitalization style for headings in which only the first letter of the heading is capitalized.</p> <h3><a name="Separation" id="Separation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Separation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-C#ColorSeparation">color separation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SerialComma" id="SerialComma"><span style="color: #0000ff">Serial comma</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A comma that precedes “and” or “or” in a running list of items. Also called Harvard comma, Oxford comma.</p> <h3><a name="Serif" id="Serif"><span style="color: #0000ff">Serif</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A typeface with small decorative strokes at the end of each letter. See also <a href="Glossary-S#SansSerif">sans serif</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Server" id="Server"><span style="color: #0000ff">Server</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-C#ClientServer">client/server</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SexualHarassment" id="SexualHarassment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sexual harassment</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The situation created when one employee makes continued, unwelcome sexual advances or requests for sexual favors to another employee.</p> <h3><a name="SF" id="SF"><span style="color: #0000ff">SF</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#ScheduledFinishDate">Scheduled finish date</a>; <a href="Glossary-S#Starttofinish">start-to-finish</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SG&amp;A" id="SG&amp;A"><span style="color: #0000ff">SG&amp;A</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SalesGeneralAndAdministrativeCosts">Sales, general, and administrative costs</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SGML" id="SGML"><span style="color: #0000ff">SGML</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StandardGeneralizedMarkupLanguage">Standard Generalized Markup Language</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Shade" id="Shade"><span style="color: #0000ff">Shade</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-V#Value">value</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ShadowPrice" id="ShadowPrice"><span style="color: #0000ff">Shadow price</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An estimate of what the price of a good or input would be in the absence of market distortions, such as externalities or taxes.</p> <h3><a name="Shockwave" id="Shockwave"><span style="color: #0000ff">Shockwave (Adobe)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A Macromedia Director add-in for creating web-based highly-compressed interactive animations and movies.</p> <h3><a name="ShoppingCart" id="ShoppingCart"><span style="color: #0000ff">Shopping cart</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An e-commerce application that allows a consumer to browse an online catalog, collect items to purchase, then check out by viewing all charges and providing payment details.</p> <h3><a name="SICCode" id="SICCode"><span style="color: #0000ff">SIC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StandardIndustrialCalssification">Standard Industrial Classification</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Sic" id="Sic"><span style="color: #0000ff">sic</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Latin for “thus.” Used with surrounding parentheses following a misspelled word to indicate that the error is the original author’s error.</p> <h3><a name="SidestitchBinding" id="SidestitchBinding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Side-stitch binding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Binding individual sheets of paper by stapling along one edge. Also called cleat stitch, side wire. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BindingTypes">binding types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Sidebar" id="Sidebar"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sidebar</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Related information set apart from the main text and usually enclosed in a box.</p> <h3><a name="SightTranslation" id="SightTranslation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sight translation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Verbal translation without advance preparation. See also <a href="Glossary-T#Translation">translation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Signature" id="Signature"><span style="color: #0000ff">Signature</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A printed sheet that is folded one or more times to become part of publication.</p> <h3><a name="SignificantDifference" id="SignificantDifference"><span style="color: #0000ff">Significant difference</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Results that are strong enough to prove that the hypothesis should or should not be rejected.</p> <h3><a name="SignoffSheet" id="SignoffSheet"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sign-off sheet</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A part of the test procedure, included in the Test Analysis Report, which provides pertinent information about the test. This information includes set up, file names, scripts, data, test conductor, other testers and witnesses, dates tested, pass/fail results, and Quality Assurance signoff.</p> <h3><a name="SignoffWorksheet" id="SignoffWorksheet"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sign-off Worksheet</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project document used to create a technical design specification document based on the listed requirements, as well as to evaluate and prepare a feasibility analysis or level of effort for the project management team to review. Once signed, this document provides the basis for negotiations about changes and modifications. <a href="">TEMPLATE</a></p> <h3><a name="Simile" id="Simile"><span style="color: #0000ff">Simile</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An explicit comparison between two things using “like” or “as.”</p> <h3><a name="Simulation" id="Simulation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Simulation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Use of a project model to translate the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project.</p> <h3><a name="SimulationModeling" id="SimulationModeling"><span style="color: #0000ff">Simulation modeling</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A computer program that tests a proposed business process and helps decision makers determine the potential benefits, costs, and risks.</p> <h3><a name="SimultaneousTranslation" id="SimultaneousTranslation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Simultaneous translation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Translation performed concurrently with a speaker’s presentation. See also <a href="Glossary-T#Translation">translation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SingleSourcing" id="SingleSourcing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Single sourcing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A method of creating documentation in which all authors write document components into one source file.</p> <h3><a name="SinglesourceAuthoring" id="SinglesourceAuthoring"><span style="color: #0000ff">Single-source authoring</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#SingleSourcing">single sourcing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SinglesourcePublishing" id="SinglesourcePublishing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Single-source publishing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#SinglesourcePublishing">single sourcing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SiteMap" id="SiteMap"><span style="color: #0000ff">Site map</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A hierarchical visual or textual representation of the information on a web site.</p> <h3><a name="SituationalAnalysis" id="SituationalAnalysis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Situational analysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An analysis of an organization and its internal and external environment—including strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT)—to determine where the organization is now and where it is going. See also <a href="Glossary-S#StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesAndThreatsAnalysis">strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SituationalLeadership" id="SituationalLeadership"><span style="color: #0000ff">Situational leadership</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A leadership style that adopts and/or adapts one or more leadership styles based on situational needs. See also <a href="Glossary-L#LeadershipStyles">leadership styles</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SixSigma" id="SixSigma"><span style="color: #0000ff">Six Sigma</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A methodology for improving process performance and boosting quality in industry.</p> <h3><a name="Skewed" id="Skewed"><span style="color: #0000ff">Skewed</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A distribution that is not symmetrical. The result is that one tail of the frequency curve is longer than the other. The skew is titled after the longest tail; for example, if the left side has the longest tail, it is called skewed left.</p> <h3><a name="Skype" id="Skype"><span style="color: #0000ff">Skype</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An Internet service provider that offers free calling between computers and low-cost calling to regular telephones.</p> <h3><a name="Skypecasting" id="Skypecasting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Skypecasting</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Using Skype to create blog entries, podcasts, and vlogs.</p> <h3><a name="Slack" id="Slack"><span style="color: #0000ff">Slack</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In the arrow diagramming method, a term used for float. See also <a href="Glossary-F#Float">float</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Slander" id="Slander"><span style="color: #0000ff">Slander</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-D#Defamation">defamation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SlipProof" id="SlipProof"><span style="color: #0000ff">Slip proof</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-G#GalleyProof">galley proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SlipSheets" id="SlipSheets"><span style="color: #0000ff">Slip sheets</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Separate sheets of paper placed within the camera-ready copy.</p> <h3><a name="SmallCaps" id="SmallCaps"><span style="color: #0000ff">Small caps</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Capital (uppercase) letters that are smaller than regular capital letters in the same font.</p> <h3><a name="SmallComputerSystemsInterface" id="SmallComputerSystemsInterface"><span style="color: #0000ff">Small computer systems interface (SCSI)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A very fast parallel port that allows connection of up to seven peripheral devices, like laser printers and scanners.</p> <h3><a name="SmartQuotes" id="SmartQuotes"><span style="color: #0000ff">Smart quotes</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The curved characters (<span style="font-family: times new roman,times">“”</span> and <span style="font-family: times new roman,times">‘’</span>) used to surround a quotation. These characters can be double (<span style="font-family: times new roman,times">“</span>) or single (<span style="font-family: times new roman,times">‘</span>). See also <a href="Glossary-C#CloseQuote">close quote</a>, <a href="">open quote</a>, <a href="Glossary-Q#QuotationMarks">quotation marks</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SME" id="SME"><span style="color: #0000ff">SME</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SubjectmatterExpert">Subject-matter expert</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SmokeTesting" id="SmokeTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Smoke testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A quick-and-dirty test to ensure that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it did not catch on fire.</p> <h3><a name="SnagIt" id="SnagIt"><span style="color: #0000ff">SnagIt (TechSmith)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Screen capture software that allows the user to edit, organize, and share images.</p> <h3><a name="SoakTesting" id="SoakTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Soak testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time; for example, running several times more transactions than would be expected, to identify any performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.</p> <h3><a name="SocialNetworks" id="SocialNetworks"><span style="color: #0000ff">Social networks</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Online communities that use Web sites such as LinkedIn, MySpace, and Facebook to share activities or interests.</p> <h3><a name="SocietyForTechnicalCommunication" id="SocietyForTechnicalCommunication"><span style="color: #0000ff">Society for Technical Communication (STC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A professional association that advances the arts and sciences of technical communication. Its members include technical writers, editors, graphic designers, multimedia artists, web and intranet page information designers, translators and others whose work involves making technical information understandable and available to those who need it.</p> <h3><a name="Softcopy" id="Softcopy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Softcopy</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Electronic information output, as opposed to printed output. See also <a href="Glossary-H#Hardcopy">hardcopy</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareConfigurationItem" id="SoftwareConfigurationItem"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software configuration item</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An aggregation of software that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareConfigurationManagement" id="SoftwareConfigurationManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software configuration management (SCM)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of identifying and defining the software configuration items in a system, controlling the release and change of these items throughout the system life cycle, recording and reporting the status of configuration items and change requests, and verifying the completeness and correctness of configuration items.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Also, a Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to establish and maintain the integrity of the software work products throughout the project's life cycle.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareConfigurationManagementPlan" id="SoftwareConfigurationManagementPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project document that details plans for tracking and controlling changes to a product to maintain integrity, traceability, and accountability throughout the life cycle.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareDevelopmentPlan" id="SoftwareDevelopmentPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software development plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#SoftwareProjectManagementPlan">Software Project Management Plan</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareEngineeringInstitute" id="SoftwareEngineeringInstitute"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software Engineering Institute (SEI)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A Federally funded research and development center, based at Carnegie Mellon University, and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense. The SEI's core purpose is to help others make measured improvements in their software engineering capabilities. One of SEI’s initiatives is the Capability Maturity Model (CMM).</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareEngineeringMethodology" id="SoftwareEngineeringMethodology"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software engineering methodology (SEM)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The departmental methodology that identifies the processes, activities, tasks, management responsibilities, and work products that are required for each software development and maintenance project. Deviations from the methodology require the approval of all parties who have approval rights on the project. A key objective of the methodology is to provide measurable, repeatable processes to assure that project development and maintenance methodologies are consistent throughout the departmental information systems environment.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareLibrary" id="SoftwareLibrary"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software library</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A controlled collection of software and related documentation designed to aid in software development, use, or maintenance.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareLifeCycle" id="SoftwareLifeCycle"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software life cycle</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The period of time that begins when a software product is conceived and ends when the software is no longer available for use. The life cycle phases may overlap or be performed iteratively, depending on the software development approach used. See also <a href="Glossary-P#ProjectPhase">project phase</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareProjectManagementPlan" id="SoftwareProjectManagementPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software Project Management Plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The controlling document for managing a software project. The plan defines the technical and managerial functions, activities, and tasks necessary to satisfy the requirements of a software project, as defined in the project agreement. Also called software development plan.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareProjectPlanning" id="SoftwareProjectPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software project planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to establish reasonable plans for performing software engineering and for managing the software project.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareProjectTrackingAndOversight" id="SoftwareProjectTrackingAndOversight"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software project tracking and oversight</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to provide adequate visibility into actual project progress so that management can take effective actions when the project's performance deviates significantly from the plans.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareQualityAssurance" id="SoftwareQualityAssurance"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software quality assurance (SQA)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model key process area designed to provide management with appropriate visibility into the software engineering processes being used by the project team and the work products being built.</p> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Also, the design and implementation of design features to ensure that software requirements and specifications can be verified.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareRepository" id="SoftwareRepository"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software repository</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A software library that provides permanent, archival storage for software and related documentation.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareRequirementsSpecification" id="SoftwareRequirementsSpecification"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software Requirements Specification</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, constraints, and validation requirements for software.</p> <h3><a name="SoftwareTesting" id="SoftwareTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Software testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.</p> <h3><a name="SolesourceContract" id="SolesourceContract"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sole-source contract</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A contract awarded as a result of a solicitation that was provided to only one offeror or as a result of an unsolicited proposal.</p> <h3><a name="Solicitation" id="Solicitation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Solicitation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals.</p> <h3><a name="SolicitationPlanning" id="SolicitationPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Solicitation planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources.</p> <h3><a name="SOP" id="SOP"><span style="color: #0000ff">SOP</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StandardOperatingProcedure">Standard Operating Procedure</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SoundCard" id="SoundCard"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sound card</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A circuit board that enables a computer to accept audio input and create audio output.</p> <h3><a name="SourceLanguage" id="SourceLanguage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Source language</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The language from which the translation originates.</p> <h3><a name="SourceSelection" id="SourceSelection"><span style="color: #0000ff">Source selection</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Choosing from among potential vendors.</p> <h3><a name="SOW" id="SOW"><span style="color: #0000ff">SOW</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StatementOfWork">Statement of Work</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SpanOfControl" id="SpanOfControl"><span style="color: #0000ff">Span of control</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The number of individuals (direct reports) that a manager or project manager can effectively manage.</p> <h3><a name="SPC" id="SPC"><span style="color: #0000ff">SPC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StatisticalProcessControl">Statistical process control</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SPI" id="SPI"><span style="color: #0000ff">SPI</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SchedulePerformanceIndex">Schedule performance index</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Spider" id="Spider"><span style="color: #0000ff">Spider</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A software program that visits every site on the web, follows all of the links, and creates a catalog all of the text of every web page. Also called crawler, robot.</p> <h3><a name="Spine" id="Spine"><span style="color: #0000ff">Spine</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The binding edge of a publication.</p> <h3><a name="SpiralBinding" id="SpiralBinding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Spiral binding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A type of document binding that uses a plastic coil to hold the pages together. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BindingTypes">binding types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SplashPage" id="SplashPage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Splash page</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An introduction to a web site that is placed before the home page and typically introduces the mission, products, and services of an organization.</p> <h3><a name="Sponsor" id="Sponsor"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sponsor</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The individual or group in the performing organization providing the financial resources for the project.</p> <h3><a name="Spread" id="Spread"><span style="color: #0000ff">Spread</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Two facing pages that are designed as one visual unit. Also called fatty.</p> <h3><a name="Spyware" id="Spyware"><span style="color: #0000ff">Spyware</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Software that is secretly installed on your computer to collect information and send it to the developer.</p> <h3><a name="SQA" id="SQA"><span style="color: #0000ff">SQA</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SoftwareQUalityAssurance">Software quality assurance</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SQL" id="SQL"><span style="color: #0000ff">SQL</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StructuredQueryLanguage">Structured query language</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SR" id="SR"><span style="color: #0000ff">SR</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SystematicReview">Systematic review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SS" id="SS"><span style="color: #0000ff">SS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#ScheduledStartDate">Scheduled start date</a>; <a href="Glossary-S#Starttostart">start-to-start</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ST&amp;E" id="ST&amp;E"><span style="color: #0000ff">ST&amp;E</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#SecurityTestAndEvaluation">Security test and evaluation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StageGate" id="StageGate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stage gate</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PhaseGate">phase gate</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StakeholderAnalysis" id="StakeholderAnalysis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stakeholder analysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An approach used to identify groups and individuals who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be affected, either positively or negatively, as a result of project execution or successful project completion.</p> <h3><a name="Stakeholders" id="Stakeholders"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stakeholders</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Those people internal or external to the organization who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be affected, either positively or negatively, as a result of project execution or successful project completion. See also <a href="Glossary-E#ExternalStakeholders">external stakeholders</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#InternalStakeholders">internal stakeholders</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Stamp" id="Stamp"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stamp</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#FoilStamp">foil stamp</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StandardDeviation" id="StandardDeviation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Standard deviation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In statistics, a measure of the spread or dispersion of a data set.</p> <h3><a name="StandardError" id="StandardError"><span style="color: #0000ff">Standard error</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The error between the mean and the actual value.</p> <h3><a name="StandardGeneralizedMarkupLanguage" id="StandardGeneralizedMarkupLanguage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Standard Generalized Markup Language</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A system that encodes a document's content and structure rather than its formatting.</p> <h3><a name="StandardIndustrialClassification" id="StandardIndustrialClassification"><span style="color: #0000ff">Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">4- to 6-digit codes assigned by the U.S. Department of Commerce to classify businesses.</p> <h3><a name="StandardOperatingProcedure" id="StandardOperatingProcedure"><span style="color: #0000ff">Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Step-by-step instructions for completing a process or part of a process.</p> <h3><a name="StandardizedTests" id="StandardizedTests"><span style="color: #0000ff">Standardized tests</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Assessments administered and scored in exactly the same way for all participants.</p> <h3><a name="Star" id="Star"><span style="color: #0000ff">Star (*)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-A#Asterisk">asterisk</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StartDate" id="StartDate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Start date</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The point in time that is associated with an activity’s start.</p> <h3><a name="Starttofinish" id="Starttofinish"><span style="color: #0000ff">Start-to-finish (SF)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-L#LogicalRelationship">logical relationship</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Starttostart" id="Starttostart"><span style="color: #0000ff">Start-to-start (SS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-L#LogicalRelationship">logical relationship</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StatementOfWork" id="StatementOfWork"><span style="color: #0000ff">Statement of Work (SOW)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document primarily for use in procurement, which specifies the work requirements for a project or program. It is used in conjunction with specifications and standards as a basis for a contract, and is used to determine whether the contractor meets stated performance requirements. <a href="">TEMPLATE</a> <a href="">GUIDE</a></p> <h3><a name="StaticTesting" id="StaticTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Static testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Analysis of a program that is carried out without executing the program.</p> <h3><a name="StatisticalProcessControl" id="StatisticalProcessControl"><span style="color: #0000ff">Statistical process control (SPC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A method used by manufacturers to ensure quality and on-time delivery.</p> <h3><a name="StatisticalSignificance" id="StatisticalSignificance"><span style="color: #0000ff">Statistical significance</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A result that is unlikely to have occurred by chance. See also <a href="Glossary-P#Pvalue">P-value</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Statistics" id="Statistics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Statistics</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The mathematical science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting numerical data.</p> <h3><a name="StatusBar" id="StatusBar"><span style="color: #0000ff">Status bar</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The area at the base of the browser window which displays the address (URL) of the destination web page or the name of the file to be downloaded.</p> <h3><a name="StatusReport" id="StatusReport"><span style="color: #0000ff">Status Report</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that provides a periodic comparison of planned performance versus actual performance.</p> <h3><a name="STC" id="STC"><span style="color: #0000ff">STC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Society for Technical Communication.</p> <h3><a name="SteadyState" id="SteadyState"><span style="color: #0000ff">Steady state</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A stable condition in which change is either balanced or does not occur over time.</p> <h3><a name="StemandleafPlot" id="StemandleafPlot"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stem-and-leaf plot</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical display of related information which uses a table to show the data values and the number of occurrences. Also called stemplot. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PlotTypes">plot types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StemPlot" id="StemPlot"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stem plot</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#StemandleafPlot">stem-and-leaf plot</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Stet" id="Stet"><span style="color: #0000ff">stet</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Latin for “let it stand.” Used to indicate that text marked for deletion or change should be kept as is.</p> <h3><a name="StorageTesting" id="StorageTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Storage testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing to verify that the program stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space on external storage devices.</p> <h3><a name="Storming" id="Storming"><span style="color: #0000ff">Storming</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A transitional stage of team development in which team members compete to promote their ideas, roles, responsibilities, goals, and expectations for consideration. See also <a href="Glossary-T#TeamDevelopmentStrategies">team development stages</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Storyboard" id="Storyboard"><span style="color: #0000ff">Storyboard</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A sequence of illustrations that represent a process. <a href="">GUIDE</a></p> <h3><a name="Storyboarding" id="Storyboarding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Storyboarding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A design technique that uses individual scenes to show the proposed sequence of elements in a production.</p> <h3><a name="StrategicMap" id="StrategicMap"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strategic map</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A tool for long-range planning that plots clients' needs and the organization's future direction, by linking business plans, cooperative ventures, and strategic operations.</p> <h3><a name="StrategicPlan" id="StrategicPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strategic Plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that defines the tasks and resource allocations required to implement a strategic plan.</p> <h3><a name="StrategicPlanning" id="StrategicPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strategic planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of developing plans and activities to achieve the organization’s purpose, goals, and objectives.</p> <h3><a name="StrategicThinking" id="StrategicThinking"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strategic thinking</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Thinking that anticipates potential threats and opportunities to formulate effective long-term objectives, strategies, policies, and plans.</p> <h3><a name="Streaming" id="Streaming"><span style="color: #0000ff">Streaming</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Downloading and playing media in a continuous stream.</p> <h3><a name="StreamingMedia" id="StreamingMedia"><span style="color: #0000ff">Streaming media</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Audio and video transmitted continuously.</p> <h3><a name="StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesdAndThreats" id="StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesdAndThreats"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) that affect performance.</p> <h3><a name="StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesdAndThreatsAnalysis" id="StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesdAndThreatsAnalysis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An analysis of strengths and opportunities (and how best to take advantage of them), and weaknesses and threats (and how to minimize their impact), that is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection.</p> <h3><a name="StressTesting" id="StressTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stress testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how it fails. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load. Also called load testing.</p> <h3><a name="StretchGoals" id="StretchGoals"><span style="color: #0000ff">Stretch goals</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Ambitious goals that are seemingly unattainable with current resources or skills.</p> <h3><a name="StrikeOff" id="StrikeOff"><span style="color: #0000ff">Strike off</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PressProof">press proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StructuralTesting" id="StructuralTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structural testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing based on an analysis of the internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also <a href="Glossary-W#WhiteboxTesting">white-box testing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StructuredAuthoring" id="StructuredAuthoring"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structured authoring</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">According to Neil Perlin (, text that is one of the following:</p> <ul><blockquote> <li>Visually structured with all text in Normal style and locally formatted using the text formatting toolbar</li> <li>Programmatically structured using styles (a cascading style sheet, for example)</li> <li>Visually and programmatically structured using templates with an attached cascading style sheet</li> <li>Programmatically structured by being valid according to a DTD or XSD, like DITA</li> </blockquote> </ul><h3><a name="StructuredDesign" id="StructuredDesign"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structured design</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A disciplined approach to software design that follows a specified set of rules.</p> <h3><a name="StructuredInterview" id="StructuredInterview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structured interview</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An interview in which interviewers ask each individual the same predetermined questions. See also <a href="Glossary-I#Interview">interview</a>.</p> <h3><a name="StructuredLanguage" id="StructuredLanguage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structured language</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">*****need definition***** (DITA, DocBook, S1000D, ATA-100, XHTML)</p> <h3><a name="StructuredQueryLanguage" id="StructuredQueryLanguage"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structured Query Language (SQL)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A programming language that allows a user to access information from or update a database.</p> <h3><a name="StructuredWalkthrough" id="StructuredWalkthrough"><span style="color: #0000ff">Structured walkthrough</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A systematic, comprehensive review of the requirements, design, or implementation of a system by a group of qualified experts.</p> <h3><a name="Style" id="Style"><span style="color: #0000ff">Style</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In typography, variations in appearance that comprise the faces in a type family; for example, bold, italic.</p> <h3><a name="StyleGuide" id="StyleGuide"><span style="color: #0000ff">Style guide</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A compendium of rules and guidelines which details how to prepare documents. Styles guides typically include guidance regarding page layout, organization, headers and footers, type faces, wording preferences, and so on.</p> <h3><a name="StyleSheet" id="StyleSheet"><span style="color: #0000ff">Style sheet</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A definition of a document's appearance, specified at the beginning of an electronic document, which specifies the document's spacing, margins, typefaces, color, and so on. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CascadingStyleSheet">cascading style sheet</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Subheading" id="Subheading"><span style="color: #0000ff">Subheading</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The title of a subsidiary section in a document. See also <a href="Glossary-H#Heading">heading</a>, <a href="Glossary-R#RuninHeading">run-in heading</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Subjective" id="Subjective"><span style="color: #0000ff">Subjective</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A metric that can vary from one person to another; an opinion.</p> <h3><a name="SubjectiveQuestion" id="SubjectiveQuestion"><span style="color: #0000ff">Subjective question</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A survey question that requires a response in the participant’s own words rather than selection of an answer from a list. Also called open-ended question.</p> <h3><a name="SubjectmatterExpert" id="SubjectmatterExpert"><span style="color: #0000ff">Subject-matter expert (SME)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An individual who has detailed knowledge (explicit or tacit) about a subject.</p> <h3><a name="Subscript" id="Subscript"><span style="color: #0000ff">Subscript</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A character that is set below the baseline and is slightly smaller than the surrounding text. See also <a href="Glossary-S#Superscript">superscript</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SuccessionPlanning" id="SuccessionPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Succession planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of identifying long-range needs and developing talented individuals inside or outside the organization to fill top-level positions in the future.</p> <h3><a name="SuccessorActivity" id="SuccessorActivity"><span style="color: #0000ff">Successor activity</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In the arrow diagramming method, the activity that departs a node. In the precedence diagramming method, the “to” activity.</p> <h3><a name="SunkCost" id="SunkCost"><span style="color: #0000ff">Sunk cost</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A cost incurred in the past that will not be affected by any present or future decision. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CostTypes">cost types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Superscript" id="Superscript"><span style="color: #0000ff">Superscript</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A character that is set above the baseline and is slightly smaller than the surrounding text. See also <a href="Glossary-S#Subscript">subscript</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SupplyChain" id="SupplyChain"><span style="color: #0000ff">Supply chain</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The movement of materials from the source to the end customer, which includes demand planning, supply planning, purchasing, manufacturing, transportation warehousing, customer service, and supply chain management.</p> <h3><a name="SupplyChainManagement" id="SupplyChainManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Supply chain management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Management of the many organizations involved in the movement of materials from the source to the end customer.</p> <h3><a name="SupportiveLeadership" id="SupportiveLeadership"><span style="color: #0000ff">Supportive leadership</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A leadership style in which the leader is friendly toward and shows concern for employees. See also <a href="Glossary-L#LeadershipStyles">leadership styles</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Surveillance" id="Surveillance"><span style="color: #0000ff">Surveillance</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The continual monitoring and verification of the status of an entity and analysis of records to ensure specified requirements are being met. It may be 100%, statistically-based sampling, qualitative sampling, or the result of discussion with individuals who have first-hand knowledge. It also may include the monitoring of contractor-supplied metrics, available contractor data, sampling, or surveys. <a href="">GUIDE</a></p> <h3><a name="Survey" id="Survey"><span style="color: #0000ff">Survey</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A study that uses questionnaires or interviews to collect data.</p> <h3><a name="SurveyDesign" id="SurveyDesign"><span style="color: #0000ff">Survey design</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A visual or textual plan for a survey.</p> <h3><a name="SurveyInstrument" id="SurveyInstrument"><span style="color: #0000ff">Survey instrument</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A research tool used for a survey; for example, a questionnaire or phone script.</p> <h3><a name="SurveySample" id="SurveySample"><span style="color: #0000ff">Survey sample</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A group selected for study, which is smaller but representative of a larger population.</p> <h3><a name="SurveyTypes" id="SurveyTypes"><span style="color: #0000ff">Survey types</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-A#AttitudeSurvey">attitude survey</a>, <a href="Glossary-E#EvaluationSurvey">evaluation survey</a>, <a href="">opinion survey</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#SatisfactionSurvey">satisfaction survey</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SV" id="SV"><span style="color: #0000ff">SV</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#ScheduleVariance">Schedule variance</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SVG" id="SVG"><span style="color: #0000ff">SVG</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#ScalableVectorGraphics">Scalable vector graphics</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SW-CMM" id="SW-CMM"><span style="color: #0000ff">SW-CMM</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-C#CapabilityMaturityModelForSoftware">Capability Maturity Model for Software</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SWF" id="SWF"><span style="color: #0000ff">SWF</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Shockwave Flash file format.</p> <h3><a name="SwimlaneDiagram" id="SwimlaneDiagram"><span style="color: #0000ff">Swimlane diagram</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical representation of the hand-offs between activities, inputs, and outputs in a process. See also <a href="Glossary-F#Flowchart">flowchart</a>, <a href="Glossary-F#FlowDiagram">flow diagram</a>. <a href="">GUIDE</a></p> <h3><a name="SWOT" id="SWOT"><span style="color: #0000ff">SWOT</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesAndThreats">Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SWOTAnalysis" id="SWOTAnalysis"><span style="color: #0000ff">SWOT analysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-S#StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesAndThreatsAnalysis">Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Syllepsis" id="Syllepsis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Syllepsis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Use of a word with two other words, in which the word does not agree syntactically with one or both of the other words. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SynchronousLearning" id="SynchronousLearning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Synchronous learning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Online learning without a time delay (real-time) which requires student participation at specific times.</p> <h3><a name="Synchesis" id="Synchesis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Synchysis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A confusing arrangement of words in a sentence. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Synecdoche" id="Synecdoche"><span style="color: #0000ff">Synecdoche</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Substitution of one thing for another; for example, the use of a part for the whole. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Synesis" id="Synesis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Synesis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The agreement of words based on logic rather than syntax. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="SystemDesign" id="SystemDesign"><span style="color: #0000ff">System design</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Translation of customer requirements into comprehensive, detailed functional, performance, or design specifications, which are then used to construct the specific solution.</p> <h3><a name="SystemDesignDocument" id="SystemDesignDocument"><span style="color: #0000ff">System Design Document</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project document that translates requirements into precise descriptions of the system components, interfaces, and data necessary before development and testing can begin. It is a blueprint for the development stage, based on the system structure and model established in the functional design stage. Each design section in the document describes how the design addresses the requirements, and carries through the established requirements numbering scheme. <a href="">TEMPLATE - APPLICATION</a> <a href="">TEMPLATE - WEB</a></p> <h3><a name="SystemSecurity" id="SystemSecurity"><span style="color: #0000ff">System security</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A system function that restricts the use of objects to certain users.</p> <h3><a name="SystemTesting" id="SystemTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">System testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system that evaluates the system's compliance with its specified requirements, and that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than properties of its individual components.</p> <h3><a name="SystematicReview" id="SystematicReview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Systematic review (SR)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A critical assessment of existing research on a specific question.</p> <h3><a name="SystemsDevelopmentLifeCycle" id="SystemsDevelopmentLifeCycle"><span style="color: #0000ff">Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A conceptual model used in project management that describes the phases involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility study through maintenance, and eventually disposal, of the completed application.</p> <p> </p> <p>Return to <a href="">Glossary</a> home</p></span> <!-- attachments --> <!-- comments --> <!-- comments --> </td>

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