Revision for “Glossary – P” created on April 17, 2018 @ 22:16:10

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Glossary - P
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<td id="content_col"> <!-- edit page button --> <!-- page content --> <h1 id="pageTitle">Glossary - P</h1> <span><p>Return to <a href="http://www.tcbok.org/wiki/glossary/">Glossary</a> home</p> <h3><a name="P&amp;LStatement" id="P&amp;LStatement"><span style="color: #0000ff">P&amp;L statement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-I#IncomeStatement">income statement</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PacesettingLeadership" id="PacesettingLeadership"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pacesetting leadership</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A leadership style in which the leader has high initiative and high expectations of him/herself, and expects the same of employees. See also <a href="Glossary-L#LeadershipStyles">leadership styles</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Page" id="Page"><span style="color: #0000ff">Page</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">One side of a leaf in a publication.</p> <h3><a name="PageCount" id="PageCount"><span style="color: #0000ff">Page count</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The total number of pages in a publication. Also called extent.</p> <h3><a name="PageDesign" id="PageDesign"><span style="color: #0000ff">Page design</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of developing the optimal blend of balance, colors, contrast, layout, white space, and so on for one or more printed pages.</p> <h3><a name="Pagemaker" id="Pagemaker"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pagemaker (Adobe)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A software application for creating high-quality publications, such as ads, brochures, business cards, newsletters, and posters.</p> <h3><a name="PageProof" id="PageProof"><span style="color: #0000ff">Page proof</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#Proof">proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Pagination" id="Pagination"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pagination</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The numbering of pages in a document.</p> <h3><a name="Painter" id="Painter"><span style="color: #0000ff">Painter (Corel)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A drawing and painting program that can be used to create paintbrush and charcoal effects.</p> <h3><a name="PaintshopPro" id="PaintshopPro"><span style="color: #0000ff">Paintshop Pro (Corel)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A low-end Windows graphics application.</p> <h3><a name="PairwiseComparison" id="PairwiseComparison"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pairwise comparison</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A multi-voting technique used to rank-order a set of factors when the members of a group cannot reach agreement on the priorities of each of the factors. <a href="http://www.tcbok.org/wiki/pairwise-comparison-guide/">GUIDE</a></p> <h3><a name="Panel" id="Panel"><span style="color: #0000ff">Panel</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">One page of a folded brochure.</p> <h3><a name="PantoneMatchingSystem" id="PantoneMatchingSystem"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pantone matching system (PMS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A color-matching standard for inks, paper, and other materials.</p> <h3><a name="Paradigm" id="Paradigm"><span style="color: #0000ff">Paradigm</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An example, model, pattern, or standard.</p> <h3><a name="Paradox" id="Paradox"><span style="color: #0000ff">Paradox</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A statement that seems opposed to common sense but may be true. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Parallelism" id="Parallelism"><span style="color: #0000ff">Parallelism</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Using similarly constructed words and phrases for headings, subheadings, sentences, phrases, items in a list, and so on.</p> <h3><a name="ParametricEstimating" id="ParametricEstimating"><span style="color: #0000ff">Parametric estimating</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate.</p> <h3><a name="Paraprosdokian" id="Paraprosdokian"><span style="color: #0000ff">Paraprosdokian</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A phrase or sentence with a surprise or unexpected ending. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Parentheses" id="Parentheses"><span style="color: #0000ff">Parentheses</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The pair of characters ( and ) used to surround a parenthetical expression. See also <a href="Glossary-C#CloseParenthesis">close parenthesis</a>, <a href="Glossary-O#OpenParenthesis">open parenthesis.</a></p> <h3><a name="ParetoDiagram" id="ParetoDiagram"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pareto diagram</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A histogram that is ordered by frequency of occurrence and shows how many results each identified cause generated.</p> <h3><a name="Paronomasia" id="Paronomasia"><span style="color: #0000ff">Paronomasia</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A play on words; a pun. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ParticipantObservation" id="ParticipantObservation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Participant observation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Qualitative research in which researchers participate in the setting they are observing.</p> <h3><a name="ParticipativeLeadership" id="ParticipativeLeadership"><span style="color: #0000ff">Participative leadership</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A leadership style in which the leader consults employees and considers their suggestions. See also <a href="Glossary-L#LeadershipStyles">leadership styles</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PAS" id="PAS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PAS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PreawardSurvey">Pre-award survey</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PassiveVoice" id="PassiveVoice"><span style="color: #0000ff">Passive voice</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The verb form used when the subject is being acted upon, rather than being the doer of the action. See also <a href="Glossary-A#ActiveVoice">active voice</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Pasteup" id="Pasteup"><span style="color: #0000ff">Paste-up</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of pasting copy to mounting boards as a camera-ready mechanical. Also, the result of this process.</p> <h3><a name="Patient" id="Patient"><span style="color: #0000ff">Patent</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A property right granted to protect an invention.</p> <h3><a name="Path" id="Path"><span style="color: #0000ff">Path</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram.</p> <h3><a name="PathFloat" id="PathFloat"><span style="color: #0000ff">Path float</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#Float">float</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PathTesting" id="PathTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Path testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.</p> <h3><a name="PaybackPeriod" id="PaybackPeriod"><span style="color: #0000ff">Payback period</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The number of years it takes for the cumulative dollar value of the benefits to exceed the cumulative costs of a project; that is, how quickly the investment will begin paying for itself.</p> <h3><a name="Payperclick" id="Payperclick"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pay-per-click (PPC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A payment model in which fees for online advertising are based on qualifying click-throughs.</p> <h3><a name="Payperimpression" id="Payperimpression"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pay-per-impression</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A payment model in which fees for online advertising are based on how often the web site shows your banner ad.</p> <h3><a name="PBC" id="PBC"><span style="color: #0000ff">PBC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PerformancebasedContracting">Performance-based contracting</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PBWS" id="PBWS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PBWS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PerformancebasedWorkStatement">Performance-based work statement</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PC" id="PC"><span style="color: #0000ff">PC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PercentComplete">Percent complete</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PCA" id="PCA"><span style="color: #0000ff">PCA</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PhysicalConfigurationAudit">Physical configuration audit</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PCX" id="PCX"><span style="color: #0000ff">PCX</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">PC Paintbrush bitmap graphics file format. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BitmapGraphicsFileFormats">bitmap graphics file formats</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PD" id="PD"><span style="color: #0000ff">PD</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PositionDescription">Position description</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PDA" id="PDA"><span style="color: #0000ff">PDA</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PersonalDigitalAssistant">Personal digital assistant</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PDFAdobe" id="PDFAdobe"><span style="color: #0000ff">PDF</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Adobe Acrobat file format.</p> <h3><a name="PDFAcronym" id="PDFAcronym"><span style="color: #0000ff">PDF</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PortableDocumentFormat">Portable document format.</a></p> <h3><a name="PDM" id="PDM"><span style="color: #0000ff">PDM</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PrecedenceDiagrammingMethod">precedence diagramming method</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PDR" id="PDR"><span style="color: #0000ff">PDR</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PreliminaryDesignReview">Preliminary design review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Pedagogy" id="Pedagogy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pedagogy</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The correct use of instructional strategies or styles.</p> <h3><a name="PeerAppraisal" id="PeerAppraisal"><span style="color: #0000ff">Peer appraisal</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PeerReview">peer review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PeerReview" id="PeerReview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Peer review</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A method in which work colleagues evaluate an employee’s performance, rather than the employee’s manager. Also called peer appraisal. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceReview">performance review</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#Selfappraisal">self appraisal</a>, <a href="GlosNums.html#360DegreeReview">360-degree review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PercentComplete" id="PercentComplete"><span style="color: #0000ff">Percent complete (PC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An estimate, expressed as a percentage, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a group of activities.</p> <h3><a name="Percentile" id="Percentile"><span style="color: #0000ff">Percentile</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A number from 1 to 100 that indicates the percentage of the distribution above and below the item.</p> <h3><a name="PerfMarks" id="PerfMarks"><span style="color: #0000ff">Perf marks</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Marks on a mockup (dummy) that indicate where to perforate the paper.</p> <h3><a name="PerfectBinding" id="PerfectBinding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Perfect binding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A type of document binding in which the pages are glued along one edge. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BindingTypes">binding types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceAppraisal" id="PerformanceAppraisal"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance appraisal</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceReview">performance review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceAssessment" id="PerformanceAssessment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance assessment</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Observation and ranking of student performance—both the process and the result—based on pre-established performance criteria.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceConstraints" id="PerformanceConstraints"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance constraints</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A set of minimum measurable benchmarks your system should be able to achieve.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceCriteria" id="PerformanceCriteria"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance criteria</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The characteristics to be assessed for a given task. See also <a href="Glossary-R#Rubrics">rubrics</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#ScoringGuide">scoring guide</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceFactor" id="PerformanceFactor"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance factor (PF)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The cost to earn a dollar of value. Calculated as ACWP / BCWP, or 1 / CPI.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceGoal" id="PerformanceGoal"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance goal</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective, against which actual achievement can be compared. A performance goal can be expressed as an absolute or as a range of acceptable performance (usually expressed in percentages).</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceImprovement" id="PerformanceImprovement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance improvement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceTechnology">performance technology</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceImprovementPlan" id="PerformanceImprovementPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance improvement plan (PIP)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that establishes goals, defines success metrics, and documents progress review sessions for an underperforming employee.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceManagement" id="PerformanceManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A strategic management approach used to monitor and manage business performance.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceMeasurement" id="PerformanceMeasurement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance measurement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Identifies achievement of outcome or output in terms of quality, quantity, timeliness, and cost productivity.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceMeasurementBaseline" id="PerformanceMeasurementBaseline"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance measurement baseline</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An approved plan against which deviations are compared for management control. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BaselineTypes">baseline types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceMeasures" id="PerformanceMeasures"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance measures</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A category of quality measures that address how well a system functions.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceMetrics" id="PerformanceMetrics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance metrics</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-M#Metrics">metrics</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceObjectives" id="PerformanceObjectives"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance objectives</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">What the learner should be able to do on the job as a result of the training. Also called behavioral objectives, instructional objectives.</p> <h3><a name="PerformancePlan" id="PerformancePlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance Plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that details specific, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, and time-bound (SMART) performance expectations for an employee.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceReporting" id="PerformanceReporting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance reporting</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Collecting and disseminating performance information, including status reporting, forecasting, and progress measurement.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceRequirement" id="PerformanceRequirement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance requirement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A requirement that imposes conditions on a functional requirement. Also called performance specification.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceRequirementsSummary" id="PerformanceRequirementsSummary"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance requirements summary (PRS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A summary of tasks and deliverables that includes the contract and work requirements considered to be most critical to satisfactory contract performance and the minimum performance standard for each.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceReview" id="PerformanceReview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance review</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process in which a qualified individual or group evaluates an employee’s performance, and assesses their development and training needs. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PeerReview">peer review</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#SelfAppraisal">self appraisal</a>, <a href="GlosNums.html#360DegreeReview">360-degree review</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceSpecification" id="PerformanceSpecification"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance specification</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceRequirement">performance requirement</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceTask" id="PerformanceTask"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance task</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An assessment exercise in which students demonstrate their skills and knowledge to solve a complex problem.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceTechnology" id="PerformanceTechnology"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance technology</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A systematic approach to developing organizational, process, and individual performance. Also called performance improvement.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceTesting" id="PerformanceTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing that evaluates the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often performed using an automated test tool to simulate a large number of users. Also know as load testing.</p> <h3><a name="PerformanceWorkStatement" id="PerformanceWorkStatement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance work statement (PWS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PerformancebasedWorkStatement">performance-based work statement</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PerformancebasedAcquisitionManagement" id="PerformancebasedAcquisitionManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance-based acquisition management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A documented, systematic process for program management, which includes integration of program scope, schedule and cost objectives, establishment of a baseline plan for accomplishment of program objectives, and use of earned value techniques for performance measurement during execution of the program.</p> <h3><a name="PerformancebasedContracting" id="PerformancebasedContracting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance-based contracting (PBC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Structuring all aspects of an acquisition around the purpose of the work to be performed, as opposed to either the manner by which the work is to be performed or a broad and imprecise statement of work.</p> <h3><a name="PerformancebasedWorkStatement" id="PerformancebasedWorkStatement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance-based work statement (PBWS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A statement of work for performance-based acquisitions that describes the required results in clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes. Also called performance work statement.</p> <h3><a name="PerformancecenteredDesign" id="PerformancecenteredDesign"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performance-centered design</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Design that reflects users’ idioms, language, metaphors, and understanding of how to perform tasks, and results in a system that is intuitive and enables users to quickly and efficiently perform their normal work functions without assistance.</p> <h3><a name="Performing" id="Performing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Performing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A stage of team development in which team members function as a unit, working cooperatively to perform task activities. See also <a href="Glossary-T#TeamDevelopmentStages">team development stages</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PermissionbasedMarketing" id="PermissionbasedMarketing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Permission-based marketing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Marketing strategies that require customers to either opt-in or opt-out of receiving marketing communications. See also <a href="Glossary-M#MarketingTypes">marketing types</a>, <a href="Glossary-O#OptinPolicy">opt-in policy</a>, <a href="Glossary-O#optoutPolicy">opt-out policy</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Persona" id="Persona"><span style="color: #0000ff">Persona</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A fictional person who models the characteristics, goals, and needs of specific users.</p> <h3><a name="PersonalDigitalAssistant" id="PersonalDigitalAssistant"><span style="color: #0000ff">Personal digital assistant (PDA)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A pocket-sized personal computer, useful for storing appointments, phone numbers, reminders, and so on.</p> <h3><a name="Personification" id="Personification"><span style="color: #0000ff">Personification</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Giving human characteristics to an inanimate object. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PERT" id="PERT"><span style="color: #0000ff">PERT</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProgramEvaluationAndReviewTechnique">Program evaluation and review technique</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PERTChart" id="PERTChart"><span style="color: #0000ff">PERT chart</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical display of related information in the form of a flowchart that shows all tasks and task dependencies. Boxes represent tasks, and lines connecting the boxes represent dependencies. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PlotTypes">plot types</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#ProjectNetworkDiagram">project network diagram</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PF" id="PF"><span style="color: #0000ff">PF</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceFactor">Performance factor</a>; <a href="Glossary-P#PlannedFinishDate">planned finish date</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Phase" id="Phase"><span style="color: #0000ff">Phase</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#ProjectPhase">project phase</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PhaseGate" id="PhaseGate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Phase gate</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In a phased process, established criteria that must be met to proceed to the next phase. Also called stage gate, toll gate. See also <a href="Glossary-E#ExitCriteria">exit criteria</a>, <a href="Glossary-G#Gating">gating</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PhenomenologicalStudy" id="PhenomenologicalStudy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Phenomenological study</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The study of individuals’ experiences regarding a concept or a phenomenon. See also <a href="Glossary-R#ResearchMethods">research methods</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Phishing" id="Phishing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Phishing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">(Pronounced “fishing”) A form of Internet fraud in which a web site masquerades as that of a trusted, legitimate organization, typically a financial institution.</p> <h3><a name="Photoblog" id="Photoblog"><span style="color: #0000ff">Photoblog</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A blog that primarily consists of photographs. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BlogTypes">blog types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Photocast" id="Photocast"><span style="color: #0000ff">Photocast</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A photoblog that automatically updates when new photos are added. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BlogTypes">blog types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Photoengraving" id="Photoengraving"><span style="color: #0000ff">Photoengraving</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Engraving created by photographing an image on a metal plate then etching the image.</p> <h3><a name="Photofeed" id="Photofeed"><span style="color: #0000ff">Photofeed</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A web feed that includes images. See also <a href="Glossary-W#WebFeed">web feed</a>, <a href="Glossary-W#WebFeedFormats">web feed formats</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PhotoPaint" id="PhotoPaint"><span style="color: #0000ff">Photo-Paint (Corel)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A high-end digital image editing package that features style layers and support for CMYK process color separation.</p> <h3><a name="Paintshop" id="Paintshop"><span style="color: #0000ff">Photoshop (Adobe)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A photographic image manipulation program used to optimize low-resolution digital images and to create separated, print-quality bitmap graphics.</p> <h3><a name="PhysicalConfigurationAudit" id="PhysicalConfigurationAudit"><span style="color: #0000ff">Physical configuration audit (PCA)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An engineering inspection of a configuration item to verify that the item "as-built" conforms to the "build-to" documentation that defines it. Results of the PCA are part of the acceptance review.</p> <h3><a name="Pica" id="Pica"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pica</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In typography, a unit of measure equal to 12 points, or approximately 1/6th of an inch. See also <a href="Glossary-P#Point">point</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PieChart" id="PieChart"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pie chart</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical display of related information in which a circle is divided into segments, with one segment for each variable. The entire circle represents 100 percent and each segment is proportionate to the percentage of the whole that it represents. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PlotTypes">plot types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PilotStudyResearch" id="PilotStudyResearch"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pilot study</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A smaller version of a larger study, conducted to test feasibility and prepare for the larger study. Also called pilot test. See also <a href="Glossary-F#FeasibilityStudy">feasibility study</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PilotTest" id="PilotTest"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pilot test</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PilotStudy">pilot study</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PIP" id="PIP"><span style="color: #0000ff">PIP</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceImprovementPlan">Performance improvement plan</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Pixel" id="Pixel"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pixel</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Short for picture element.</p> <h3><a name="PixelsPerInch" id="PixelsPerInch"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pixels per inch (PPI)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The resolution of an input device, such as a scanner. See also <a href="Glossary-D#DotsPerInch">dots per inch</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Plagiarism" id="Plagiarism"><span style="color: #0000ff">Plagiarism</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Presenting someone else’s works, words, or ideas as your own.</p> <h3><a name="PlannedFinishDate" id="PlannedFinishDate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Planned finish date (PF)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#ScheduledFinishDate">scheduled finish date</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PlannedStartDate" id="PlannedStartDate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Planned start date (PS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#ScheduledStartDate">scheduled start date</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PlannedValue" id="PlannedValue"><span style="color: #0000ff">Planned value (PV)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The physical work scheduled plus the authorized budget to accomplish the scheduled work.</p> <h3><a name="Planning" id="Planning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Preparing, developing, or acquiring the information you will use to design the project; assessing the benefits, risks, and risk-adjusted life-cycle costs of alternative solutions; and establishing realistic cost, schedule, and performance goals, for the selected alternative, before either proceeding to full acquisition of the capital project or useful segment or terminating the project.</p> <h3><a name="Plate" id="Plate"><span style="color: #0000ff">Plate</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A piece of metal, paper, plastic, or rubber used on a printing press to reproduce an image.</p> <h3><a name="Platform" id="Platform"><span style="color: #0000ff">Platform</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The hardware and systems software on which applications software is developed or installed and operated.</p> <h3><a name="Pleonasm" id="Pleonasm"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pleonasm</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Use of redundant words to enrich a thought. See also <a href="Glossary-R#%22RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Plog" id="Plog"><span style="color: #0000ff">Plog</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Project blog. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BlogTypes">blog types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Plot" id="Plot"><span style="color: #0000ff">Plot</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A diagram the shows the relationship between two variables. Also called graph. See also <a href="Glossary-C#Chart">chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#Illustration">illustration</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#PlotTypes">plot types.</a> <a href="http://www.tcbok.org/wiki/charts-guide/">GUIDE</a></p> <h3><a name="PlotTypes" id="PlotTypes"><span style="color: #0000ff">Plot types</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-B#BarChart">bar chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-B#BoxandwhiskerPlot">box-and-whisker plot</a>, <a href="Glossary-C#ControlChart">control chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-D#DotPlot">dot plot</a>, <a href="Glossary-F#FrequencyTable">frequency table</a>, <a href="Glossary-G#GanttChart">Gantt chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-H#Histogram">histogram</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#IshikawaDiagram">Ishikawa diagram</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#ParetoChart">Pareto chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#PERTChart">PERT chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-P#PieChart">pie chart</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#Scatterplot">scatterplot</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#StemandleafPlot">stem-and-leaf plot</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Plugin" id="Plugin"><span style="color: #0000ff">Plug-in</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A software tool that enhances the functionality of an application such as a web browser.</p> <h3><a name="PM" id="PM"><span style="color: #0000ff">PM</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProjectManager">Project manager</a>; <a href="Glossary-P#ProjectManagement">project management</a>; <a href="Glossary-P#PreventiveMaintenance">preventive maintenance</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PMBOK" id="PMBOK"><span style="color: #0000ff">PMBOK</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProjectManagementBodyOfKnowledge">Project Management Body of Knowledge</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PMI" id="PMI"><span style="color: #0000ff">PMI</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProjectManagementInstitute">Project Management Institute</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PMO" id="PMO"><span style="color: #0000ff">PMO</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProgramManagementOffice">Program management office</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PMP" id="PMP"><span style="color: #0000ff">PMP</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Project Management Professional. A certification awarded by the Project Management Institute.</p> <h3><a name="PMS" id="PMS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PMS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PantoneMatchingSystem">Pantone matching system</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PNG" id="PNG"><span style="color: #0000ff">PNG</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Portable network graphics file format. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BitmapGraphicsFileFormat">bitmap graphics file formats</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PO" id="PO"><span style="color: #0000ff">PO</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PurchaseOrder">Purchase order</a>.</p> <h3><a name="POC" id="POC"><span style="color: #0000ff">POC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PointOfContact">Point of contact</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Podcast" id="Podcast"><span style="color: #0000ff">Podcast</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A digital audio broadcast that can be transferred or listened to on mobile devices and personal computers. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BlogTypes">blog types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Podcasting" id="Podcasting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Podcasting</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of posting an audio or video entry to a web page. See also <a href="Glossary-B#Blogging">blogging, </a><a href="Glossary-V#Vlogging">vlogging.</a></p> <h3><a name="Point" id="Point"><span style="color: #0000ff">Point</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In typography, a unit of measure equal to approximately 1/72nd of an inch. See also <a href="Glossary-P#Pica">pica.</a></p> <h3><a name="PointofContact" id="PointofContact"><span style="color: #0000ff">Point of contact (POC)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The coordinator for an activity or program.</p> <h3><a name="PointSize" id="PointSize"><span style="color: #0000ff">Point size</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In typography, the distance (in points) from the top of the highest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender.</p> <h3><a name="Policies" id="Policies"><span style="color: #0000ff">Policies</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An organization’s guidelines, principles, and rules. See also <a href="Glossary-P#Procedures">procedures.</a><a name="PoliticalInfluence" id="PoliticalInfluence"></a></p> <h3><span style="color: #0000ff">Political influence</span></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Strategic behavior to maximize self-interest, sometimes at the expense of others' interests.</p> <h3><a name="PoliticalSavvy" id="PoliticalSavvy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Political savvy</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Understanding the role of influence, leadership, and power in an organization, and using it to influence others.</p> <h3><a name="Politics" id="Politics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Politics</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-O#OfficePolitics">office politics</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Polysyndeton" id="Polysyndeton"><span style="color: #0000ff">Polysyndeton</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The repetition of conjunctions in close succession. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies.</a></p> <h3><a name="Popup" id="Popup"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pop-up</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A new window that blocks the previously displayed window to draw attention to its content, often an advertisement.</p> <h3><a name="PortableDocumentFormat" id="PortableDocumentFormat"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portable document format (PDF)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A file format that allows efficient electronic distribution of large documents.</p> <h3><a name="PortableNetworkGraphics" id="PortableNetworkGraphics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portable network graphics (PNG)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">(Pronounced "ping") A file format that supports images with millions of colors.</p> <h3><a name="Portal" id="Portal"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portal</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A web site that provides a wide range of information, references, and services related to a specific topic using its own content and links to other web sites.</p> <h3><a name="Portfolio" id="Portfolio"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portfolio</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A collection of work products that provides a visual representation of an individual’s abilities, achievements, and interests.</p> <h3><a name="PortfolioOfProjects" id="PortfolioOfProjects"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portfolio</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A related group of projects. See also <a href="Glossary-P#Program">program</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PortfolioAssessment" id="PortfolioAssessment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portfolio assessment</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An assessment of performance or progress based on a collection of work products.</p> <h3><a name="Portrait" id="Portrait"><span style="color: #0000ff">Portrait</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A page that is taller than it is wide. See also <a href="Glossary-L#Landscape">landscape</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PositionDescription" id="PositionDescription"><span style="color: #0000ff">Position description (PD)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A written outline of the skills, responsibilities, knowledge, authority, and relationships related to a specific position title.</p> <h3><a name="Positioning" id="Positioning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Positioning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The way that a brand, product, or organization is introduced to its target market. This includes image, identity, pricing, packaging, prestige, store placement, and its perceived value in relation to competitive products.</p> <h3><a name="PositionMarks" id="PositionMarks"><span style="color: #0000ff">Position marks</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-R#RegisterMarks">register marks</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PositiveSpace" id="PositiveSpace"><span style="color: #0000ff">Positive space</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-W#WhiteSpace">white space</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PositiveTesting" id="PositiveTesting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Positive testing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Testing focused on showing that the software works. Also called test to pass. See also <a href="Glossary-N#NegativeTesting">negative testing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PostBinding" id="PostBinding"><span style="color: #0000ff">Post binding</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Binding loose sheets of paper together using a post and screw inserted through a hole in the sheets. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BindingTypes">binding types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PostawardConference" id="PostawardConference"><span style="color: #0000ff">Post-award conference</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The first meeting after contract award, chaired by the buyer to orient all personnel (buyer and contractor) to the project requirements.</p> <h3><a name="PostimplementationReport" id="PostimplementationReport"><span style="color: #0000ff">Post-implementation report</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#FinalReport">final report</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PostimplementationReview" id="PostimplementationReview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Post-implementation review</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A comprehensive assessment of a newly installed system, conducted by the system development team and users, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system development after the system has been in production for a period of time (normally 6 months).</p> <h3><a name="PostScript" id="PostScript"><span style="color: #0000ff">PostScript</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The original international type standard for scalable type. See also <a href="Glossary-T#TrueType">TrueType</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PostterminationReviewReport" id="PostterminationReviewReport"><span style="color: #0000ff">Post-termination Review Report</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project document that details the findings of the Disposition phase review, documenting the lessons learned from the shutdown and archiving of the terminated system. <a href="http://www.tcbok.org/wiki/post-termination-review-template/">TEMPLATE</a></p> <h3><a name="Posttest" id="Posttest"><span style="color: #0000ff">Posttest</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A test that measures performance of objectives after a unit of instruction.</p> <h3><a name="PowerPoint" id="PowerPoint"><span style="color: #0000ff">PowerPoint (Microsoft)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A tool used to create visual presentation slides that can include special effects and transitions.</p> <h3><a name="PPC" id="PPC"><span style="color: #0000ff">PPC</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#Payperclick">Pay-per-click</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PPI" id="PPI"><span style="color: #0000ff">PPI</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PixelsPerInch">Pixels per inch</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PPS" id="PPS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PPS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">PowerPoint slide show file format.</p> <h3><a name="PPT" id="PPT"><span style="color: #0000ff">PPT</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">PowerPoint presentation file format.</p> <h3><a name="Praeteritio" id="Praeteritio"><span style="color: #0000ff">Praeteritio</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Pretended omission for rhetorical effect. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PreawardMeetings" id="PreawardMeetings"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pre-award meetings</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Meetings to aid the ranking of prospective suppliers before final award determination and to examine their facilities or capabilities.</p> <h3><a name="PreawardSurvey" id="PreawardSurvey"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pre-award survey (PAS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An evaluation of a prospective contractor’s capability to perform under the terms of a proposed contract.</p> <h3><a name="PrebidConference" id="PrebidConference"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pre-bid conference</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A meeting to brief prospective bidders and to explain complicated specifications and requirements as early as possible after the request for proposal has been issued and before the proposals are evaluated.</p> <h3><a name="PrecedenceDiagrammingMethod" id="PrecedenceDiagrammingMethod"><span style="color: #0000ff">Precedence diagramming method (PDM)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (nodes), and activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which activities are to be performed.</p> <h3><a name="PrecedenceRelationship" id="PrecedenceRelationship"><span style="color: #0000ff">Precedence relationship</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In the precedence diagramming method, a term used for a logical relationship.</p> <h3><a name="PredecessorActivity" id="PredecessorActivity"><span style="color: #0000ff">Predecessor activity</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In the arrow diagramming method, the activity that enters a node. In the precedence diagramming method, the “from” activity.</p> <h3><a name="PredecessorTask" id="PredecessorTask"><span style="color: #0000ff">Predecessor task</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A task that must start or finish before another task can start or finish.</p> <h3><a name="Predictive" id="Predictive"><span style="color: #0000ff">Predictive</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In metrics, a measurement of predicted quality. An example of a predictive measurement is a readability index.</p> <h3><a name="Preface" id="Preface"><span style="color: #0000ff">Preface</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An introductory statement that explains a book’s background, intent, or scope. See also <a href="Glossary-F#FrontMatter">front matter</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PreliminaryDesignReview" id="PreliminaryDesignReview"><span style="color: #0000ff">Preliminary design review (PDR)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A review, conducted during system acquisition, of each configuration item to evaluate the selected design approach in terms of progress, technical adequacy, and risk resolution; determine the item’s compatibility with the development specification’s performance and engineering requirements; and establish the existence and compatibility of the physical and functional interfaces among the item and other items in the project.</p> <h3><a name="PreliminaryMatter" id="PreliminaryMatter"><span style="color: #0000ff">Preliminary matter</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#FrontMatter">front matter</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Preparation" id="Preparation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Preparation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#PrepressProof">prepress proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PrepostStudies" id="PrepostStudies"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pre-post studies</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Research that involves taking measurements before and after an intervention to determine whether any changes have occurred. Also called “before and after studies.”</p> <h3><a name="Prepress" id="Prepress"><span style="color: #0000ff">Prepress</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Camera work, color separations, and other tasks performed prior to printing. Also called preparation.</p> <h3><a name="PrepressProof" id="PrepressProof"><span style="color: #0000ff">Prepress proof</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Any proof made using dyes, ink jet, overlays, or toner instead of ink. Also called dry proof, off-press proof. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PressProof">press proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PreproposalConference" id="PreproposalConference"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pre-proposal conference</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A meeting hosted by the buyer’s contracting organization to assist prospective buyers in understanding the request for proposal.</p> <h3><a name="PressCheck" id="PressCheck"><span style="color: #0000ff">Press check</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Meeting at which proofs are evaluated before authorizing production.</p> <h3><a name="PressProof" id="PressProof"><span style="color: #0000ff">Press proof</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Any proof made on a press using the ink, paper, and plates specified for the job. Also called strike off, trial proof. See also <a href="Glossary-P#PrepressProof">prepress proof</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PressRelease" id="PressRelease"><span style="color: #0000ff">Press release</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A communication targeted at news media to announce a noteworthy event.</p> <h3><a name="Pretest" id="Pretest"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pretest</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A test given before instruction begins to establish a baseline for measuring post-instructional performance.</p> <h3><a name="PreventiveMaintenance" id="PreventiveMaintenance"><span style="color: #0000ff">Preventive maintenance (PM)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Routine maintenance tasks performed proactively on a regular, scheduled basis, rather than reactively when equipment breaks down.</p> <h3><a name="PrimaryNavigation" id="PrimaryNavigation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Primary navigation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The general menu choices that display on most/all screens or web pages. Also called global navigation, main menu. See also <a href="Glossary-F#FooterNavigation">footer navigation</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#InpageNavigation">in-page navigation</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PrimaryNavigationBar" id="PrimaryNavigationBar"><span style="color: #0000ff">Primary navigation bar</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Navigational elements that provide shortcuts to the main sections of a web site.</p> <h3><a name="PrimeContractor" id="PrimeContractor"><span style="color: #0000ff">Prime contractor</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An organization that is responsible for coordinating the activities of a number of subcontractors, integrating their deliverables, and managing risks to meet the buyer’s requirements in terms of performance, cost, and schedule.</p> <h3><a name="PrintPublishing" id="PrintPublishing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Print publishing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Paper-based documents, including books, magazines, and newspapers, as opposed to online documents.</p> <h3><a name="PrivacyPolicy" id="PrivacyPolicy"><span style="color: #0000ff">Privacy policy</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A company’s policy that explains consumers’ privacy rights regarding the collection, access, storage, and use of personal data.</p> <h3><a name="PRN" id="PRN"><span style="color: #0000ff">PRN</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Printer output file format.</p> <h3><a name="Probability" id="Probability"><span style="color: #0000ff">Probability</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The likelihood of occurrence. Also, the ratio of chances that an event may or may not occur to the sum of the chances of both happening and not happening.</p> <h3><a name="ProbabilityAndImpactMatrix" id="ProbabilityAndImpactMatrix"><span style="color: #0000ff">Probability and impact matrix</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate, or high by combining the probability of its occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs.</p> <h3><a name="ProbabilitySample" id="ProbabilitySample"><span style="color: #0000ff">Probability sample</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-R#RepresentativeSample">representative sample</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProblemSolving" id="ProblemSolving"><span style="color: #0000ff">Problem solving</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Learning in which students evaluate their thinking and progress while solving problems.</p> <h3><a name="Procedures" id="Procedures"><span style="color: #0000ff">Procedures</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The specific methods an organization uses to carry out their policies. See also <a href="Glossary-P#Policies">policies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProcessColors" id="ProcessColors"><span style="color: #0000ff">Process colors</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The ink colors used in four-color process printing: cyan (process blue), magenta, yellow, and black.</p> <h3><a name="ProcessFlowDiagram" id="ProcessFlowDiagram"><span style="color: #0000ff">Process flow diagram</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A graphical representation of the steps in a process. See also <a href="Glossary-S#SwimlaneDiagram">swimlane diagram</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProcessFlowchart" id="ProcessFlowchart"><span style="color: #0000ff">Process flowchart</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#ProcessFlowDiagram">process flow diagram</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProcessImprovementTeam" id="ProcessImprovementTeam"><span style="color: #0000ff">Process improvement team</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A selected, cross-functional group of people who are directly or indirectly involved with a specific process and are tasked with improving that process within an organization.</p> <h3><a name="ProcessModeling" id="ProcessModeling"><span style="color: #0000ff">Process modeling</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Documenting complex business processes or strategies in terms of activities and interactions in a way that allows an organization to implement process changes and/or improvements without negatively impacting associated processes or strategies. Also called business modeling.</p> <h3><a name="ProcessPrinting" id="ProcessPrinting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Process printing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#FourcolorProcessPrinting">four-color process printing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Procurement" id="Procurement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Procurement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of acquiring goods or services from outside the immediate project organization, beginning with determining the need and ending with contract completion and closeout.</p> <h3><a name="ProcurementPlanning" id="ProcurementPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Procurement planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Determining what to procure and when.</p> <h3><a name="ProductBaseline" id="ProductBaseline"><span style="color: #0000ff">Product baseline</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A baseline that describes a product’s functional, physical, and interface characteristics. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BaselineTypes">baseline types</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProductLifeCycle" id="ProductLifeCycle"><span style="color: #0000ff">Product life cycle</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-L#LifeCycle">life cycle</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProductScope" id="ProductScope"><span style="color: #0000ff">Product scope</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The features and functions that characterize a product or service.</p> <h3><a name="ProductionRun" id="ProductionRun"><span style="color: #0000ff">Production run</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The press run to print a specified quantity of a product.</p> <h3><a name="ProfessionalDevelopment" id="ProfessionalDevelopment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Professional development</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of increasing an individual’s personal and professional knowledge and skills through conferences, mentoring, reading, seminars, workshops, and other learning opportunities.</p> <h3><a name="ProfessionalDress" id="ProfessionalDress"><span style="color: #0000ff">Professional dress</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Appropriate clothing and accessories (typically, a business suit, dress shoes, and so on) for your organization and your position within it. Also called business-professional attire. See also <a href="Glossary-B#BusinessCasual">business casual</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Professionalism" id="Professionalism"><span style="color: #0000ff">Professionalism</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The active demonstration of a set of attitudes and behaviors accepted as appropriate to an occupation.</p> <h3><a name="ProfitAndLossStatement" id="ProfitAndLossStatement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Profit and loss statement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-I#IncomeStatement">income statement</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Program" id="Program"><span style="color: #0000ff">Program</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way.</p> <h3><a name="ProgramEvaluationAndReviewTechnique" id="ProgramEvaluationAndReviewTechnique"><span style="color: #0000ff">Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it is completed. For each activity, you assign a best, worst, and most probable completion time estimate, then use these estimates to determine the average completion time.</p> <h3><a name="ProgramManagement" id="ProgramManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Program management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Management of a related series of projects over a period of time, to accomplish broad goals to which the individual projects contribute.</p> <h3><a name="ProgramManagementOffice" id="ProgramManagementOffice"><span style="color: #0000ff">Program management office (PMO)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An organizational entity established to complete a number of projects that collectively satisfy a strategic or tactical organizational objective.</p> <h3><a name="ProgramManager" id="ProgramManager"><span style="color: #0000ff">Program manager</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An individual typically responsible for a number of related projects, each with its own project manager.</p> <h3><a name="ProgressMeasurement" id="ProgressMeasurement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Progress measurement</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Identifies what you did, not necessarily how well you did it. The most typical example is milestone completion.</p> <h3><a name="ProgressiveDiscipline" id="ProgressiveDiscipline"><span style="color: #0000ff">Progressive discipline</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A process of increasingly formal efforts for dealing with an individual’s performance that does not meet expected standards.</p> <h3><a name="Project" id="Project"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A temporary undertaking with prescribed objectives, magnitude, duration, and a specific outcome.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectMS" id="ProjectMS"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project (Microsoft)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A project management tool used to develop tasks, analyze workloads, assign resources, monitor budgets, and track progress.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectBudget" id="ProjectBudget"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project budget</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The amount of funds allocated for all expenses related to a specific project.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectCharter" id="ProjectCharter"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Charter</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The written understanding between the project manager and approving officials regarding the project's purpose, scope, objectives, major activities, timeline, risks, organization, lines of authority and accountability, responsibilities of various participants, and general method of operation.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectCommunicationsManagement" id="ProjectCommunicationsManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project communications management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate creation, dissemination, storage, and disposal of project information, and that consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectCostManagement" id="ProjectCostManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project cost management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The area of project management that consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control--the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectDeliverable" id="ProjectDeliverable"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project deliverable</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-D#Deliverable">deliverable</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectEstimating" id="ProjectEstimating"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project estimating</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Determining likely project costs and durations with some degree of certainty based on informed judgments.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectHumanResourcesManagement" id="ProjectHumanResourcesManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project human resources management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The area of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project, and that consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectIntegrationManagement" id="ProjectIntegrationManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project integration management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated, and that consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and integrated change control.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectLifeCycle" id="ProjectLifeCycle"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project life cycle</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The four sequential major time periods through which any project passes: concept, definition, execution (implementation or development), finishing (commissioning or closing out).</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagement" id="ProjectManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project management (PM)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project’s requirements.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagementBodyOfKnowledge" id="ProjectManagementBodyOfKnowledge"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. This standard identifies and defines nine areas of knowledge for successful project management: communications, cost, human resources, integration, procurement, quality, risks, scope, and time.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagementInstitute" id="ProjectManagementInstitute"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Management Institute (PMI)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An organization dedicated to advancing the discipline of project management and state-of-the-art project management practices.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagementMethodologies" id="ProjectManagementMethodologies"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project management methodologies</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-A#AgileDevelopment">agile development</a>, <a href="Glossary-C#CapabilityMaturityModel">Capability Maturity Model</a>, <a href="Glossary-I#ITIL">ITIL</a>, <a href="Glossary-J#JointApplicationDevelopment">joint application development</a>, <a href="Glossary-L#LeanDevelopment">lean development</a>, <a href="Glossary-R#RapidApplicationDevelopment">rapid application development</a>, <a href="Glossary-R#RationalUnifiedProcess">Rational Unified Process</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#Scrum">scrum</a>, <a href="Glossary-S#SDLC">SDLC</a>, <a href="Glossary-W#Waterfall">waterfall</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagementOffice" id="ProjectManagementOffice"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project management office</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The organizational entity that defines and maintains repeatable project management process standards.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagementProfessional" id="ProjectManagementProfessional"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Management Professional (PMP)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A certification conferred by the Project Management Institute.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManagementTeam" id="ProjectManagementTeam"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project management team</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectManager" id="ProjectManager"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project manager (PM)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In a non-procurement project, the individual responsible and accountable for planning, budgeting, procurement, and life-cycle management of the project to achieve its cost, schedule, and performance goals. In a procurement project, the individual familiar with the technical requirements of the procurement who writes the SOW, defines and articulates the contract requirements, and is responsible for planning, program control functions, developing program objectives, delivery requirements, scheduling, estimating, budgeting, specific project plans, surveillance plan development, and participating in the source selection.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectMilestone" id="ProjectMilestone"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project milestone</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-M#Milestone">milestone</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectNetworkDiagram" id="ProjectNetworkDiagram"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project network diagram</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect chronology. Also called PERT chart.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectPhase" id="ProjectPhase"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project phase</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A collection of logically related project activities, usually ending at the completion of a major deliverable.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectPlan" id="ProjectPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">One of several key project-planning documents that use a building-block approach to planning, this document describes the technical and management approach to be followed for a project. The plan typically describes the work to be done, the resources required, the methods to be used, the procedures to be followed, the schedules to be met, and the way the project will be organized. The plan includes a list of deliverables, actions required, and other key events needed to accomplish the project. It is a vehicle for documenting the project’s scope, tasks, schedule, allocated resources, and interrelationships with other projects. Revisions to the Project Plan occur at the end of each phase and as additional information becomes available. <a href="http://www.tcbok.org/wiki/project-plan-template/">TEMPLATE</a></p> <h3><a name="ProjectPlanDevelopment" id="ProjectPlanDevelopment"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project plan development</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectPlanExecution" id="ProjectPlanExecution"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project plan execution</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included in the plan.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectPlanning" id="ProjectPlanning"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project planning</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Development and maintenance of the project plan.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectProcurementManagement" id="ProjectProcurementManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project procurement management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An area of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope from outside the performing organization, and that consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectQualityManagement" id="ProjectQualityManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project quality management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken, and that consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectRiskManagement" id="ProjectRiskManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project risk management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An area of project management that includes the processes required to identify, analyze, and respond to project risk, including risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectSchedule" id="ProjectSchedule"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Schedule</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that identifies the planned dates to perform activities and meet milestones.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectScope" id="ProjectScope"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project scope</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The work that must be done to deliver a product or service with the specified features and functions.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectScopeManagement" id="ProjectScopeManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project scope management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectSponsor" id="ProjectSponsor"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project sponsor</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The person in an organization whose support and approval is required for a project to start and continue.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectStakeholder" id="ProjectStakeholder"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project stakeholder</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-S#Stakeholder">stakeholders</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectSurveillancePlan" id="ProjectSurveillancePlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Surveillance Plan (PSP)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A document that describes a systematic approach to evaluating contractor performance and establishes the organization’s responsibilities for determining whether contractor performance is acceptable.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectTeam" id="ProjectTeam"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project team</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-I#IntegratedProjectTeam">integrated project team</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectTestPlan" id="ProjectTestPlan"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project Test Plan</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Defines all test activities required to assure that the software product will perform satisfactorily for all users. As a minimum, the plan should include descriptions for unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectTimeManagement" id="ProjectTimeManagement"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project time management</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project, and that consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.</p> <h3><a name="ProjectWorkBreakdownStructure" id="ProjectWorkBreakdownStructure"><span style="color: #0000ff">Project work breakdown structure (PWBS)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A work breakdown structure that is further developed from the program level downward to a project-by-project basis. See also <a href="Glossary-C#ContractWorkBreakdownStructure">contract work breakdown structure</a>, <a href="Glossary-W#WorkBreakdownStructure">work breakdown structure</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Prolepsis" id="Prolepsis"><span style="color: #0000ff">Prolepsis</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The representation of a future act as already being accomplished. See also <a href="Glossary-R#RhetoricalStrategies">rhetorical strategies</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Proof" id="Proof"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proof</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The final sample of a page, created for the customer’s approval for production.</p> <h3><a name="ProofOfConcept" id="ProofOfConcept"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proof of concept</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Evidence to support acceptance of a proposed solution.</p> <h3><a name="Proofing" id="Proofing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proofing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Reviewing copy to ensure quality of style, usage, spelling, and punctuation. Also called proofreading. See also <a href="Glossary-E#Editing">editing.</a><a name="ProofreaderMarks" id="ProofreaderMarks"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proofreader marks</span></a></p> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Standard abbreviations, symbols, and words used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks, editing marks.</p> <h3><a name="Proofreading" id="Proofreading"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proofreading</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-P#Proofing">proofing</a>.</p> <h3><a name="ProportionallySpacedType" id="ProportionallySpacedType"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proportionally spaced type</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A typeface in which characters have a variable width. See also <a href="Glossary-M#monospaced%20type">monospaced type</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Proposal" id="Proposal"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proposal</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A procurement document that describes an organization’s ability and willingness to provide the requested product according to the requirements of the solicitation. Also, an offer submitted to enter into a contract, contract modification, or termination settlement.</p> <h3><a name="ProposalWriting" id="ProposalWriting"><span style="color: #0000ff">Proposal writing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Development of a written offer of services, usually in response to a request for proposal, or a written request for funding, as in grants, loans, and subsidies.</p> <h3><a name="Protocol" id="Protocol"><span style="color: #0000ff">Protocol</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A process, or set of directions, for accomplishing a task.</p> <h3><a name="Prototype" id="Prototype"><span style="color: #0000ff">Prototype</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An early, experimental design of a product used for illustration or testing. See also <a href="Glossary-W#Wireframe">wireframe</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Prototyping" id="Prototyping"><span style="color: #0000ff">Prototyping</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A technique for developing and testing a preliminary version of a software product (either as a whole or in modular units) to emulate functionality without encumbering features like error handling, help messages, security controls, and other utilities that are not part of the design logic.</p> <h3><a name="PRS" id="PRS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PRS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceRequirementsSummary">Performance requirements summary</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PSPlannedStart" id="PSPlannedStart"><span style="color: #0000ff">PS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PlannedStartDate">Planned start date</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PSPostScript" id="PSPostScript"><span style="color: #0000ff">PS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Adobe PostScript file format.</p> <h3><a name="PSD" id="PSD"><span style="color: #0000ff">PSD</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Adobe Photoshop graphics file format.</p> <h3><a name="PSP" id="PSP"><span style="color: #0000ff">PSP</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProjectSurveillancePlan">Project Surveillance Plan</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Psychographics" id="Psychographics"><span style="color: #0000ff">Psychographics</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The psychological characteristics—attitudes and values—of the segments of the population as defined by demographics. See also <a href="Glossary-D#Demographics">demographics</a>, <a href="Glossary-M#MarketAnalysis">market analysis</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PsychomotorDomain" id="PsychomotorDomain"><span style="color: #0000ff">Psychomotor domain</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">In Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, a physical/motor learning domain that references objectives and test items that require manual and physical skills. See also <a href="Glossary-A#AffectiveDomain">affective domain</a>, <a href="Glossary-B#BloomsTaxonomy">Bloom’s taxonomy</a>, <a href="Glossary-C#CognitiveDomain">cognitive domain</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PUB" id="PUB"><span style="color: #0000ff">PUB</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Microsoft Publisher file format.</p> <h3><a name="PublicDomain" id="PublicDomain"><span style="color: #0000ff">Public domain</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Intellectual property of any kind which can be freely copied and distributed.</p> <h3><a name="PublicRelations" id="PublicRelations"><span style="color: #0000ff">Public relations</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Creating, developing, and executing activities, programs, and policies to influence public opinion about an event, idea, product, or organization.</p> <h3><a name="PublicSpeaking" id="PublicSpeaking"><span style="color: #0000ff">Public speaking</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of making effective presentations to an audience.</p> <h3><a name="Publisher" id="Publisher"><span style="color: #0000ff">Publisher (Microsoft)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">A desktop publishing layout program used to create simple documents for in-house document production.</p> <h3><a name="Publishing" id="Publishing"><span style="color: #0000ff">Publishing</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The process of issuing a publication.</p> <h3><a name="Pullout" id="Pullout"><span style="color: #0000ff">Pullout</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">See <a href="Glossary-F#Foldout">foldout</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Punctuation" id="Punctuation"><span style="color: #0000ff">Punctuation</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Standard marks and signs used to separate words, phrases, and sentences, denote emphasis and pauses, and otherwise clarify meaning in a written communication.</p> <h3><a name="PurchaseOrder" id="PurchaseOrder"><span style="color: #0000ff">Purchase order (PO)</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">An offer to buy certain services, supplies, or construction based on certain terms and conditions.</p> <h3><a name="PurposefulSampling" id="PurposefulSampling"><span style="color: #0000ff">Purposeful sampling</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">Choosing research participants who have specific characteristics.</p> <h3><a name="PV" id="PV"><span style="color: #0000ff">PV</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PlannedValue">Planned value</a>.</p> <h3><a name="Pvalue" id="Pvalue"><span style="color: #0000ff">P-value</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px">The probability that study results are based on chance rather than the result of the intervention.</p> <h3><a name="PWBS" id="PWBS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PWBS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#ProjectWorkBreakdownStructure">Project work breakdown structure</a>.</p> <h3><a name="PWS" id="PWS"><span style="color: #0000ff">PWS</span></a></h3> <p style="padding-left: 30px"><a href="Glossary-P#PerformanceWorkStatement">Performance Work Statement</a>.</p> <p> </p> <p>Return to <a href="http://www.tcbok.org/wiki/glossary/">Glossary</a> home</p></span> <!-- attachments --> <!-- comments --> <!-- comments --> </td>
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