Glossary - I
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Latin abbreviation for "in the same place."
Latin abbreviation for "that is" or "in other words."
A visual image that supports or clarifies text.
A vector-based drawing program used to create print quality line-art drawings, like logos and illustrations, and to export them to page layout programs.
An image with one or more hyperlinked areas. See also hotspot.
Bitmap graphic file format.
An assessment of the pros and cons of following a particular course of action.
Fourth phase of ADDIE, an iterative application model for instructional systems design. The goal of this phase is to conduct training. See also ADDIE.
A project document that defines the objectives, resources, and plans for installation and systems transition; for example, scheduling the transition from acceptance testing to full operational status, identifying staffing and training needs for system operation and maintenance, planning for data migration, and so on. The plan contains an overview of the system, a brief description of the major tasks involved in the implementation, the overall resources needed to support the implementation effort (such as hardware, software, facilities, materials, and personnel), and any site-specific implementation requirements. The plan is developed during and updated throughout the Design and Development phase; the final version is provided in the Testing phase and is used for guidance during the Implementation phase. TEMPLATE
A requirement that supports the development and maintenance concepts and approaches in the areas of operating environment, conversion, installation, training, and documentation.
An enforceable contract not made explicitly but rather implied from circumstances or the parties' conduct.
The display of a banner ad in a web page.
A negotiated pricing arrangement that gives the contractor higher profits for better performance and/or lower profits for worse performance in specified areas.
What is left after all expenses and costs are subtracted from revenues. Also called earnings, profit, or the bottom line (because it is usually the final line on the financial statement known as an income statement).
A financial statement that reports an entity's income for a period of time, usually for a fiscal quarter or fiscal year (as contrasted with the balance sheet, which shows the status of assets, liabilities, and owner's equities at one point in time). Also called P&L, profit and loss statement.
A software development technique in which requirements definition, design, implementation, and testing occur in an overlapping, iterative (rather than sequential) manner, resulting in incremental completion of the overall software product.
Budget authority that is or appears to be provided for only part of the estimated cost of a capital acquisition or part of a usable asset. When capital projects or useful segments are incrementally funded, without certainty if or when future funding will be available, it can result in poor planning, acquisition of assets not fully justified, higher acquisition costs, project delays, cancellation of major projects, the loss of sunk costs, or inadequate funding to maintain and operate the assets.
Adobe InDesign graphics document file format.
Adobe InDesign document file format.
To place text some distance from the left margin. See also hanging indent.
A person or a business, under a written or implied agreement or contract, that delivers a product or performs a service for another person or business.
A variable that the researcher controls or manipulates. See also variable types.
The process of proving compliance to a specification by using personnel that are technically competent and managerially separate from the development team. Product risk is the driver for the IV&V team's degree of independence.
A process performed by external sources, used to prove that a solution meets both specification and user requirements as evidenced by test and operational results.
A professional design layout package, similar to Adobe Pagemaker.
An alphabetized list of key terms and concepts in a document, and the pages on which they appear. See also back matter.
A list of words or phrases along with page numbers or other pointers to the location of that information in a document.
The costs for common or joint objectives that cannot be attributed to any specific project or activity; however, they can be allocated to projects on a prorated basis. Also called overhead or burden. See also cost types.
The result of a person's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs. See also knowledge.
The creation and development of concepts and specifications that optimize the aesthetics, function, and usability of products and systems, benefiting both the user and the manufacturer.
The proportionate rate of change in the general price level, as opposed to the proportionate increase in a specific price. Inflation is usually measured by a broad-based price index, such as the implicit deflator for Gross Domestic Product or the Consumer Price Index.
Knowledge gained through experience outside a classroom. See also knowledge.
The process of organizing information--including the structure, design, layout and navigation--to facilitate finding, understanding, and managing the information.
Providing information to everyone who impacts key business processesâ€”in real time and in a format they can use.
As defined by STC's Special Interest Group on Information Design, a field that "applies traditional and evolving design principles to the process of translating complex, unorganized, or unstructured data into valuable, meaningful information. The practice of information design requires an interdisciplinary approach which combines skills in graphic design, writing and editing, instructional design, human performance technology, and human factors."
The process of transforming technical content into knowledge that can be transferred to users and managed as a corporate asset.
A development methodology where models are created to improve the users' ability to understand and define the functions and flow of information within their organization. A business model is developed to identify the key areas of interest for the business, the tasks required for each area, and the activities that make up each task. The business model prioritizes and identifies top management goals and then establishes the information needs necessary to reach those goals. A data model is developed to describe the data and the relationships among data. The data model further divides the business model into user-defined relationships (for example, an entity relationship model).
The proper organization and control, including records management, of information transmitted by any means.
As defined by the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, any equipment or interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of data or information. Information technology includes computers, ancillary equipment, software, firmware and similar procedures, services (including support services), and related resources. It does not include any equipment that is acquired by a Federal contractor incidental to a Federal contract.
A service management standard/model that documents best practices for the support and delivery of IT services. See also project management methodologies.
The violation of an exclusive right to intellectual property.
A project idea that has a sponsor and mission relevance but has not had formal cost/benefit, alternative, or requirements analyses.
A company's first public sale of stock.
Authorizing a project or phase.
A proposal for the development/acquisition of a new information system, for an enhancement to an existing system which will result in a major system, or for the acquisition of new information technology.
A vector drawing application that uses the W3C standard scalable vector graphics (SVG) file format.
One of five adopter categories. Describes individuals who are the first to embrace change and adopt new technologies. See also adopter categories, early adopters, early majority, laggards, late majority.
A set of data required for successful completion of a series of test procedures. The system uses the data to ensure resolution of problems and correct performance. See also data types.
The process of investigating and developing a plan to solve a problem.
A project surveillance method that refers to the process of gathering a minimum set of product or process data that provides adequate visibility into the integrity of the product or process. The data may be acquired from contractor records, usually in a non-intrusive parallel method.
The period of time during which a software product is integrated into its operational environment and tested in this environment to ensure it performs as required.
Testing to confirm that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power-out conditions.
A non-profit professional association for the advancement of technology.
The process of breaking an instructional task or goal into steps and objectives to develop lesson and unit objectives.
The process of creating instruction to close a performance gap that is due to a lack of knowledge and skills.
The person who develops the methodology and delivery systems for presenting course content.
Brief statements that describe the tasks that can be performed as a result of the training.
The methods used to transfer content and skills from the training delivery system to the learner; for example, discussion, hands-on activities, practice, lecture, on-the-job training, and simulations.
Delivery of a course in a traditional classroom setting.
Assets that have no physical substance, such as goodwill, trademarks, patents, or the protection provided by an insurance policy. Even though they have no physical substance, intangible assets can and often do appear on the balance sheet. See also tangible assets.
A multi-disciplinary team led by a program manager responsible and accountable for planning, budgeting, procurement, and life-cycle management of the project to achieve its cost, schedule, and performance goals. Team skills include: budget, finance, capital planning, procurement, user, program, value management, earned value management, and other skills as appropriate.
A telephone system network that it integrates speech and data on the same lines.
A project document that defines the activities necessary to integrate the software units and software components into the software item. The Integration Plan contains an overview of the system, a brief description of the major tasks involved in the integration, and the overall resources needed to support the integration effort. The plan is developed during the Design and Development phase and is updated during the Testing phase; the final version is provided in the Implementation phase. TEMPLATE
Testing of combined parts of an application to determine whether they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit testing and functional testing, and especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems. This orderly progression of testing verifies:
- The internal integrity of a collection of units (modules)
- Their integration into components, products, subsystems, and systems
- Their interfaces and interdependencies to ensure that they are properly designed and implemented.
Within an organization, the sum of human capital, innovation capital, market capital, and organizational capital an organization can leverage to produce an asset that is equally as or more important than land, capital, and labor. See also human capital, innovation capital, market capital, organizational capital.
Concepts, ideas, notions, thoughts, and processes that are definable, measurable, and proprietary in nature. Also, legally, the copyrights, patents, service marks, trademarks, and trade secrets that a company holds.
Creation of behavior and communication tools and processes to facilitate humans' communication with and manipulation of objects, services, and physical or virtual environments.
Media that allows two-way interaction with direct response to input, as opposed to one-way communication from elevision, video, or other non-responsive medium.
A proprietary browser that allows users to access email, the web, and interactive digital content without a personal computer.
See user interface.
A project document that defines the requirements imposed on one or more systems, subsystems, hardware configuration items, computer software configuration items, manual operations, or other system components to achieve one or more interfaces among these entities. It specifies interface requirements that the participating systems must meet, describes the concept of operations for the interface, defines the message structure and protocols that govern the interchange of data, and identifies the communication paths along which the data will flow. Upon formal approval, the ICD is incorporated into the requirements baseline for each system. TEMPLATE
The activity concerned with the interfaces of the software system contained in the software requirements and software interface requirements documentation. The design consolidates the interface descriptions into a single interface description of the software system.
A requirement that specifies an external item with which a software product or system must interact, or that sets forth constraints on formats, timing, or other factors caused by such an interaction.
Testing conducted to evaluate whether software components pass data and control correctly to one another.
An analysis of an organization's performance, problems, position, and potential.
The process of eliciting support within an organization to promote its goals. See also marketing types.
Calculation of annual financial return for a given outlay without considering any external or related factors. The IRR for an investment is the discount rate for which the total present value of future cash flows equals the cost of the investment. The higher an investment's IRR, the better the investment's return relative to its cost. In simpler terms, the IRR is the value another investment must generate in order equal the cash flow of the investment you are considering.
Sets of practices followed by people of a various groups or regions around the world.
A 10-digit number that uniquely identifies published works internationally.
A non-governmental organization that develops and publishes international standards.
An international system of linked computer networks that facilitates data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, and newsgroups.
The protocol that provides the addresses--network identifiers and host identifiers--needed to move information across networks.
A business or organization that provides Internet access and related services to consumers.
See Visual Studio.
An understanding of yourself--your behaviors, goals, intentions, and responses.
Translation of verbal communication.
An advertisement displayed between web pages.
A research process to get structured information from an individual or group, usually through an established set of questions and/or probes.
A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use.
A preliminary section in a book, which often contains material essential to understanding the main text. See also front matter.
A device, method, or process that is novel and non-obvious.
Generally equivalent to request for proposal; however, in some application areas, may have a more narrow or specific meaning. See request for proposal.
A contractorâ€™s bill or written request for payment for work or services performed under a contract.
Internet protocol address. A numeric address that is given to servers and other computers connected to the Internet.
The expression of something contrary to the intended meaning. See also rhetorical strategies.
A diagram used to show how various causes and sub-causes create a specific effect. See also plot types.
A series of standards established in Western Europe in the 1980s as a basis for judging the adequacy of a company's quality control systems.
ISO 9000 series standards, revised in 2000, that promote a process-based approach to increase the effectiveness of quality management systems by translating customer requirements to customer satisfaction.
Any slanting version of a letter.
Design methodology involving repeated cycles of design, testing, analysis, and refinement. See also user-centered design.
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