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Glossary - P

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P&L statement

See income statement.

Pacesetting leadership

A leadership style in which the leader has high initiative and high expectations of him/herself, and expects the same of employees. See also leadership styles.

Page

One side of a leaf in a publication.

Page count

The total number of pages in a publication. Also called extent.

Page design

The process of developing the optimal blend of balance, colors, contrast, layout, white space, and so on for one or more printed pages.

Pagemaker (Adobe)

A software application for creating high-quality publications, such as ads, brochures, business cards, newsletters, and posters.

Page proof

See proof.

The numbering of pages in a document.

Painter (Corel)

A drawing and painting program that can be used to create paintbrush and charcoal effects.

Paintshop Pro (Corel)

A low-end Windows graphics application.

Pairwise comparison

A multi-voting technique used to rank-order a set of factors when the members of a group cannot reach agreement on the priorities of each of the factors. GUIDE

Panel

One page of a folded brochure.

Pantone matching system (PMS)

A color-matching standard for inks, paper, and other materials.

Paradigm

An example, model, pattern, or standard.

Paradox

A statement that seems opposed to common sense but may be true. See also rhetorical strategies.

Parallelism

Using similarly constructed words and phrases for headings, subheadings, sentences, phrases, items in a list, and so on.

Parametric estimating

An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate.

Paraprosdokian

A phrase or sentence with a surprise or unexpected ending. See also rhetorical strategies.

Parentheses

The pair of characters ( and ) used to surround a parenthetical expression. See also close parenthesis, open parenthesis.

Pareto diagram

A histogram that is ordered by frequency of occurrence and shows how many results each identified cause generated.

Paronomasia

A play on words; a pun. See also rhetorical strategies.

Participant observation

Qualitative research in which researchers participate in the setting they are observing.

Participative leadership

A leadership style in which the leader consults employees and considers their suggestions. See also leadership styles.

PAS

Pre-award survey.

Passive voice

The verb form used when the subject is being acted upon, rather than being the doer of the action. See also active voice.

Paste-up

The process of pasting copy to mounting boards as a camera-ready mechanical. Also, the result of this process.

Patent

A property right granted to protect an invention.

Path

A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram.

Path float

See float.

Path testing

Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.

Payback period

The number of years it takes for the cumulative dollar value of the benefits to exceed the cumulative costs of a project; that is, how quickly the investment will begin paying for itself.

Pay-per-click (PPC)

A payment model in which fees for online advertising are based on qualifying click-throughs.

Pay-per-impression

A payment model in which fees for online advertising are based on how often the web site shows your banner ad.

PBC

Performance-based contracting.

PBWS

Performance-based work statement.

PC

Percent complete.

PCA

Physical configuration audit.

PCX

PC Paintbrush bitmap graphics file format. See also bitmap graphics file formats.

PD

Position description.

PDA

Personal digital assistant.

PDF

Adobe Acrobat file format.

PDF

Portable document format.

PDM

See precedence diagramming method.

PDR

Preliminary design review.

Pedagogy

The correct use of instructional strategies or styles.

Peer appraisal

See peer review.

Peer review

A method in which work colleagues evaluate an employee’s performance, rather than the employee’s manager. Also called peer appraisal. See also performance review, self appraisal, 360-degree review.

Percent complete (PC)

An estimate, expressed as a percentage, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a group of activities.

Percentile

A number from 1 to 100 that indicates the percentage of the distribution above and below the item.

Perf marks

Marks on a mockup (dummy) that indicate where to perforate the paper.

Perfect binding

A type of document binding in which the pages are glued along one edge. See also binding types.

Performance appraisal

See performance review.

Performance assessment

Observation and ranking of student performance—both the process and the result—based on pre-established performance criteria.

Performance constraints

A set of minimum measurable benchmarks your system should be able to achieve.

Performance criteria

The characteristics to be assessed for a given task. See also rubrics, scoring guide.

Performance factor (PF)

The cost to earn a dollar of value. Calculated as ACWP / BCWP, or 1 / CPI.

Performance goal

A target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective, against which actual achievement can be compared. A performance goal can be expressed as an absolute or as a range of acceptable performance (usually expressed in percentages).

Performance improvement

See performance technology.

Performance improvement plan (PIP)

A document that establishes goals, defines success metrics, and documents progress review sessions for an underperforming employee.

Performance management

A strategic management approach used to monitor and manage business performance.

Performance measurement

Identifies achievement of outcome or output in terms of quality, quantity, timeliness, and cost productivity.

Performance measurement baseline

An approved plan against which deviations are compared for management control. See also baseline types.

Performance measures

A category of quality measures that address how well a system functions.

Performance metrics

See metrics.

Performance objectives

What the learner should be able to do on the job as a result of the training. Also called behavioral objectives, instructional objectives.

Performance Plan

A document that details specific, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, and time-bound (SMART) performance expectations for an employee.

Performance reporting

Collecting and disseminating performance information, including status reporting, forecasting, and progress measurement.

Performance requirement

A requirement that imposes conditions on a functional requirement. Also called performance specification.

Performance requirements summary (PRS)

A summary of tasks and deliverables that includes the contract and work requirements considered to be most critical to satisfactory contract performance and the minimum performance standard for each.

Performance review

The process in which a qualified individual or group evaluates an employee’s performance, and assesses their development and training needs. See also peer review, self appraisal, 360-degree review.

Performance specification

See performance requirement.

Performance task

An assessment exercise in which students demonstrate their skills and knowledge to solve a complex problem.

Performance technology

A systematic approach to developing organizational, process, and individual performance. Also called performance improvement.

Performance testing

Testing that evaluates the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often performed using an automated test tool to simulate a large number of users. Also know as load testing.

Performance work statement (PWS)

See performance-based work statement.

Performance-based acquisition management

A documented, systematic process for program management, which includes integration of program scope, schedule and cost objectives, establishment of a baseline plan for accomplishment of program objectives, and use of earned value techniques for performance measurement during execution of the program.

Performance-based contracting (PBC)

Structuring all aspects of an acquisition around the purpose of the work to be performed, as opposed to either the manner by which the work is to be performed or a broad and imprecise statement of work.

Performance-based work statement (PBWS)

A statement of work for performance-based acquisitions that describes the required results in clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes. Also called performance work statement.

Performance-centered design

Design that reflects users’ idioms, language, metaphors, and understanding of how to perform tasks, and results in a system that is intuitive and enables users to quickly and efficiently perform their normal work functions without assistance.

Performing

A stage of team development in which team members function as a unit, working cooperatively to perform task activities. See also team development stages.

Permission-based marketing

Marketing strategies that require customers to either opt-in or opt-out of receiving marketing communications. See also marketing types, opt-in policy, opt-out policy.

Persona

A fictional person who models the characteristics, goals, and needs of specific users.

Personal digital assistant (PDA)

A pocket-sized personal computer, useful for storing appointments, phone numbers, reminders, and so on.

Personification

Giving human characteristics to an inanimate object. See also rhetorical strategies.

PERT

Program evaluation and review technique.

PERT chart

A graphical display of related information in the form of a flowchart that shows all tasks and task dependencies. Boxes represent tasks, and lines connecting the boxes represent dependencies. See also plot types, project network diagram.

PF

Performance factor; planned finish date.

Phase

See project phase.

Phase gate

In a phased process, established criteria that must be met to proceed to the next phase. Also called stage gate, toll gate. See also exit criteria, gating.

Phenomenological study

The study of individuals’ experiences regarding a concept or a phenomenon. See also research methods.

Phishing

(Pronounced “fishing”) A form of Internet fraud in which a web site masquerades as that of a trusted, legitimate organization, typically a financial institution.

Photoblog

A blog that primarily consists of photographs. See also blog types.

Photocast

A photoblog that automatically updates when new photos are added. See also blog types.

Photoengraving

Engraving created by photographing an image on a metal plate then etching the image.

Photofeed

A web feed that includes images. See also web feed, web feed formats.

Photo-Paint (Corel)

A high-end digital image editing package that features style layers and support for CMYK process color separation.

Photoshop (Adobe)

A photographic image manipulation program used to optimize low-resolution digital images and to create separated, print-quality bitmap graphics.

Physical configuration audit (PCA)

An engineering inspection of a configuration item to verify that the item "as-built" conforms to the "build-to" documentation that defines it. Results of the PCA are part of the acceptance review.

Pica

In typography, a unit of measure equal to 12 points, or approximately 1/6th of an inch. See also point.

Pie chart

A graphical display of related information in which a circle is divided into segments, with one segment for each variable. The entire circle represents 100 percent and each segment is proportionate to the percentage of the whole that it represents. See also plot types.

Pilot study

A smaller version of a larger study, conducted to test feasibility and prepare for the larger study. Also called pilot test. See also feasibility study.

Pilot test

See pilot study.

PIP

Performance improvement plan.

Pixel

Short for picture element.

Pixels per inch (PPI)

The resolution of an input device, such as a scanner. See also dots per inch.

Plagiarism

Presenting someone else’s works, words, or ideas as your own.

Planned finish date (PF)

See scheduled finish date.

Planned start date (PS)

See scheduled start date.

Planned value (PV)

The physical work scheduled plus the authorized budget to accomplish the scheduled work.

Planning

Preparing, developing, or acquiring the information you will use to design the project; assessing the benefits, risks, and risk-adjusted life-cycle costs of alternative solutions; and establishing realistic cost, schedule, and performance goals, for the selected alternative, before either proceeding to full acquisition of the capital project or useful segment or terminating the project.

Plate

A piece of metal, paper, plastic, or rubber used on a printing press to reproduce an image.

Platform

The hardware and systems software on which applications software is developed or installed and operated.

Pleonasm

Use of redundant words to enrich a thought. See also rhetorical strategies.

Plog

Project blog. See also blog types.

Plot

A diagram the shows the relationship between two variables. Also called graph. See also chart, illustration, plot types. GUIDE

Plot types

See bar chart, box-and-whisker plot, control chart, dot plot, frequency table, Gantt chart, histogram, Ishikawa diagram, Pareto chart, PERT chart, pie chart, scatterplot, stem-and-leaf plot.

Plug-in

A software tool that enhances the functionality of an application such as a web browser.

PM

Project manager; project management; preventive maintenance.

PMBOK

Project Management Body of Knowledge.

PMI

Project Management Institute.

PMO

Program management office.

PMP

Project Management Professional. A certification awarded by the Project Management Institute.

PMS

See Pantone matching system.

PNG

Portable network graphics file format. See also bitmap graphics file formats.

PO

Purchase order.

POC

Point of contact.

Podcast

A digital audio broadcast that can be transferred or listened to on mobile devices and personal computers. See also blog types.

Podcasting

The process of posting an audio or video entry to a web page. See also blogging, vlogging.

Point

In typography, a unit of measure equal to approximately 1/72nd of an inch. See also pica.

Point of contact (POC)

The coordinator for an activity or program.

Point size

In typography, the distance (in points) from the top of the highest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender.

Policies

An organization’s guidelines, principles, and rules. See also procedures.

Political influence

Strategic behavior to maximize self-interest, sometimes at the expense of others' interests.

Political savvy

Understanding the role of influence, leadership, and power in an organization, and using it to influence others.

Politics

See office politics.

Polysyndeton

The repetition of conjunctions in close succession. See also rhetorical strategies.

Pop-up

A new window that blocks the previously displayed window to draw attention to its content, often an advertisement.

Portable document format (PDF)

A file format that allows efficient electronic distribution of large documents.

Portable network graphics (PNG)

(Pronounced "ping") A file format that supports images with millions of colors.

Portal

A web site that provides a wide range of information, references, and services related to a specific topic using its own content and links to other web sites.

Portfolio

A collection of work products that provides a visual representation of an individual’s abilities, achievements, and interests.

Portfolio

A related group of projects. See also program.

Portfolio assessment

An assessment of performance or progress based on a collection of work products.

Portrait

A page that is taller than it is wide. See also landscape.

Position description (PD)

A written outline of the skills, responsibilities, knowledge, authority, and relationships related to a specific position title.

Positioning

The way that a brand, product, or organization is introduced to its target market. This includes image, identity, pricing, packaging, prestige, store placement, and its perceived value in relation to competitive products.

Position marks

See register marks.

Positive space

See white space.

Positive testing

Testing focused on showing that the software works. Also called test to pass. See also negative testing.

Post binding

Binding loose sheets of paper together using a post and screw inserted through a hole in the sheets. See also binding types.

Post-award conference

The first meeting after contract award, chaired by the buyer to orient all personnel (buyer and contractor) to the project requirements.

Post-implementation report

See final report.

Post-implementation review

A comprehensive assessment of a newly installed system, conducted by the system development team and users, to evaluate the effectiveness of the system development after the system has been in production for a period of time (normally 6 months).

PostScript

The original international type standard for scalable type. See also TrueType.

Post-termination Review Report

A project document that details the findings of the Disposition phase review, documenting the lessons learned from the shutdown and archiving of the terminated system. TEMPLATE

Posttest

A test that measures performance of objectives after a unit of instruction.

PowerPoint (Microsoft)

A tool used to create visual presentation slides that can include special effects and transitions.

PPC

Pay-per-click.

PPI

Pixels per inch.

PPS

PowerPoint slide show file format.

PPT

PowerPoint presentation file format.

Praeteritio

Pretended omission for rhetorical effect. See also rhetorical strategies.

Pre-award meetings

Meetings to aid the ranking of prospective suppliers before final award determination and to examine their facilities or capabilities.

Pre-award survey (PAS)

An evaluation of a prospective contractor’s capability to perform under the terms of a proposed contract.

Pre-bid conference

A meeting to brief prospective bidders and to explain complicated specifications and requirements as early as possible after the request for proposal has been issued and before the proposals are evaluated.

Precedence diagramming method (PDM)

A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (nodes), and activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which activities are to be performed.

Precedence relationship

In the precedence diagramming method, a term used for a logical relationship.

Predecessor activity

In the arrow diagramming method, the activity that enters a node. In the precedence diagramming method, the “from” activity.

Predecessor task

A task that must start or finish before another task can start or finish.

Predictive

In metrics, a measurement of predicted quality. An example of a predictive measurement is a readability index.

Preface

An introductory statement that explains a book’s background, intent, or scope. See also front matter.

Preliminary design review (PDR)

A review, conducted during system acquisition, of each configuration item to evaluate the selected design approach in terms of progress, technical adequacy, and risk resolution; determine the item’s compatibility with the development specification’s performance and engineering requirements; and establish the existence and compatibility of the physical and functional interfaces among the item and other items in the project.

Preliminary matter

See front matter.

Preparation

See prepress proof.

Pre-post studies

Research that involves taking measurements before and after an intervention to determine whether any changes have occurred. Also called “before and after studies.”

Prepress

Camera work, color separations, and other tasks performed prior to printing. Also called preparation.

Prepress proof

Any proof made using dyes, ink jet, overlays, or toner instead of ink. Also called dry proof, off-press proof. See also press proof.

Pre-proposal conference

A meeting hosted by the buyer’s contracting organization to assist prospective buyers in understanding the request for proposal.

Press check

Meeting at which proofs are evaluated before authorizing production.

Press proof

Any proof made on a press using the ink, paper, and plates specified for the job. Also called strike off, trial proof. See also prepress proof.

Press release

A communication targeted at news media to announce a noteworthy event.

Pretest

A test given before instruction begins to establish a baseline for measuring post-instructional performance.

Preventive maintenance (PM)

Routine maintenance tasks performed proactively on a regular, scheduled basis, rather than reactively when equipment breaks down.

Primary navigation

The general menu choices that display on most/all screens or web pages. Also called global navigation, main menu. See also footer navigation, in-page navigation.

Primary navigation bar

Navigational elements that provide shortcuts to the main sections of a web site.

Prime contractor

An organization that is responsible for coordinating the activities of a number of subcontractors, integrating their deliverables, and managing risks to meet the buyer’s requirements in terms of performance, cost, and schedule.

Print publishing

Paper-based documents, including books, magazines, and newspapers, as opposed to online documents.

Privacy policy

A company’s policy that explains consumers’ privacy rights regarding the collection, access, storage, and use of personal data.

PRN

Printer output file format.

Probability

The likelihood of occurrence. Also, the ratio of chances that an event may or may not occur to the sum of the chances of both happening and not happening.

Probability and impact matrix

A common way to determine whether a risk is considered low, moderate, or high by combining the probability of its occurrence and its impact on objectives if it occurs.

Probability sample

See representative sample.

Problem solving

Learning in which students evaluate their thinking and progress while solving problems.

Procedures

The specific methods an organization uses to carry out their policies. See also policies.

Process colors

The ink colors used in four-color process printing: cyan (process blue), magenta, yellow, and black.

Process flow diagram

A graphical representation of the steps in a process. See also swimlane diagram.

Process flowchart

See process flow diagram.

Process improvement team

A selected, cross-functional group of people who are directly or indirectly involved with a specific process and are tasked with improving that process within an organization.

Process modeling

Documenting complex business processes or strategies in terms of activities and interactions in a way that allows an organization to implement process changes and/or improvements without negatively impacting associated processes or strategies. Also called business modeling.

Process printing

See four-color process printing.

Procurement

The process of acquiring goods or services from outside the immediate project organization, beginning with determining the need and ending with contract completion and closeout.

Procurement planning

Determining what to procure and when.

Product baseline

A baseline that describes a product’s functional, physical, and interface characteristics. See also baseline types.

Product life cycle

See life cycle.

Product scope

The features and functions that characterize a product or service.

Production run

The press run to print a specified quantity of a product.

Professional development

The process of increasing an individual’s personal and professional knowledge and skills through conferences, mentoring, reading, seminars, workshops, and other learning opportunities.

Professional dress

Appropriate clothing and accessories (typically, a business suit, dress shoes, and so on) for your organization and your position within it. Also called business-professional attire. See also business casual.

Professionalism

The active demonstration of a set of attitudes and behaviors accepted as appropriate to an occupation.

Profit and loss statement

See income statement.

Program

A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way.

Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

A project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it is completed. For each activity, you assign a best, worst, and most probable completion time estimate, then use these estimates to determine the average completion time.

Program management

Management of a related series of projects over a period of time, to accomplish broad goals to which the individual projects contribute.

Program management office (PMO)

An organizational entity established to complete a number of projects that collectively satisfy a strategic or tactical organizational objective.

Program manager

An individual typically responsible for a number of related projects, each with its own project manager.

Progress measurement

Identifies what you did, not necessarily how well you did it. The most typical example is milestone completion.

Progressive discipline

A process of increasingly formal efforts for dealing with an individual’s performance that does not meet expected standards.

Project

A temporary undertaking with prescribed objectives, magnitude, duration, and a specific outcome.

Project (Microsoft)

A project management tool used to develop tasks, analyze workloads, assign resources, monitor budgets, and track progress.

Project budget

The amount of funds allocated for all expenses related to a specific project.

Project Charter

The written understanding between the project manager and approving officials regarding the project's purpose, scope, objectives, major activities, timeline, risks, organization, lines of authority and accountability, responsibilities of various participants, and general method of operation.

Project communications management

The area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate creation, dissemination, storage, and disposal of project information, and that consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.

Project cost management

The area of project management that consists of resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control--the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within the approved budget.

Project deliverable

See deliverable.

Project estimating

Determining likely project costs and durations with some degree of certainty based on informed judgments.

Project human resources management

The area of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective use of the people involved with the project, and that consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.

Project integration management

The area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elements of the project are properly coordinated, and that consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and integrated change control.

Project life cycle

The four sequential major time periods through which any project passes: concept, definition, execution (implementation or development), finishing (commissioning or closing out).

Project management (PM)

The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project’s requirements.

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. This standard identifies and defines nine areas of knowledge for successful project management: communications, cost, human resources, integration, procurement, quality, risks, scope, and time.

Project Management Institute (PMI)

An organization dedicated to advancing the discipline of project management and state-of-the-art project management practices.

Project management methodologies

See agile development, Capability Maturity Model, ITIL, joint application development, lean development, rapid application development, Rational Unified Process, scrum, SDLC, waterfall.

Project management office

The organizational entity that defines and maintains repeatable project management process standards.

Project Management Professional (PMP)

A certification conferred by the Project Management Institute.

Project management team

Members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities.

Project manager (PM)

In a non-procurement project, the individual responsible and accountable for planning, budgeting, procurement, and life-cycle management of the project to achieve its cost, schedule, and performance goals. In a procurement project, the individual familiar with the technical requirements of the procurement who writes the SOW, defines and articulates the contract requirements, and is responsible for planning, program control functions, developing program objectives, delivery requirements, scheduling, estimating, budgeting, specific project plans, surveillance plan development, and participating in the source selection.

Project milestone

See milestone.

Project network diagram

Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect chronology. Also called PERT chart.

Project phase

A collection of logically related project activities, usually ending at the completion of a major deliverable.

Project Plan

One of several key project-planning documents that use a building-block approach to planning, this document describes the technical and management approach to be followed for a project. The plan typically describes the work to be done, the resources required, the methods to be used, the procedures to be followed, the schedules to be met, and the way the project will be organized. The plan includes a list of deliverables, actions required, and other key events needed to accomplish the project. It is a vehicle for documenting the project’s scope, tasks, schedule, allocated resources, and interrelationships with other projects. Revisions to the Project Plan occur at the end of each phase and as additional information becomes available. TEMPLATE

Project plan development

Integrating and coordinating all project plans to create a consistent, coherent document.

Project plan execution

Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included in the plan.

Project planning

Development and maintenance of the project plan.

Project procurement management

An area of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services to attain project scope from outside the performing organization, and that consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout.

Project quality management

An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken, and that consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.

Project risk management

An area of project management that includes the processes required to identify, analyze, and respond to project risk, including risk management planning, risk identification, qualitative risk analysis, quantitative risk analysis, risk response planning, and risk monitoring and control.

Project Schedule

A document that identifies the planned dates to perform activities and meet milestones.

Project scope

The work that must be done to deliver a product or service with the specified features and functions.

Project scope management

An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.

Project sponsor

The person in an organization whose support and approval is required for a project to start and continue.

Project stakeholder

See stakeholders.

Project Surveillance Plan (PSP)

A document that describes a systematic approach to evaluating contractor performance and establishes the organization’s responsibilities for determining whether contractor performance is acceptable.

Project team

See integrated project team.

Project Test Plan

Defines all test activities required to assure that the software product will perform satisfactorily for all users. As a minimum, the plan should include descriptions for unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing.

Project time management

An area of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project, and that consists of activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and schedule control.

Project work breakdown structure (PWBS)

A work breakdown structure that is further developed from the program level downward to a project-by-project basis. See also contract work breakdown structure, work breakdown structure.

Prolepsis

The representation of a future act as already being accomplished. See also rhetorical strategies.

Proof

The final sample of a page, created for the customer’s approval for production.

Proof of concept

Evidence to support acceptance of a proposed solution.

Proofing

Reviewing copy to ensure quality of style, usage, spelling, and punctuation. Also called proofreading. See also editing.Proofreader marks

Standard abbreviations, symbols, and words used to mark up manuscripts and proofs. Also called correction marks, editing marks.

Proofreading

See proofing.

Proportionally spaced type

A typeface in which characters have a variable width. See also monospaced type.

Proposal

A procurement document that describes an organization’s ability and willingness to provide the requested product according to the requirements of the solicitation. Also, an offer submitted to enter into a contract, contract modification, or termination settlement.

Proposal writing

Development of a written offer of services, usually in response to a request for proposal, or a written request for funding, as in grants, loans, and subsidies.

Protocol

A process, or set of directions, for accomplishing a task.

Prototype

An early, experimental design of a product used for illustration or testing. See also wireframe.

Prototyping

A technique for developing and testing a preliminary version of a software product (either as a whole or in modular units) to emulate functionality without encumbering features like error handling, help messages, security controls, and other utilities that are not part of the design logic.

PRS

Performance requirements summary.

PS

Planned start date.

PS

Adobe PostScript file format.

PSD

Adobe Photoshop graphics file format.

PSP

Project Surveillance Plan.

Psychographics

The psychological characteristics—attitudes and values—of the segments of the population as defined by demographics. See also demographics, market analysis.

Psychomotor domain

In Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, a physical/motor learning domain that references objectives and test items that require manual and physical skills. See also affective domain, Bloom’s taxonomy, cognitive domain.

PUB

Microsoft Publisher file format.

Public domain

Intellectual property of any kind which can be freely copied and distributed.

Public relations

Creating, developing, and executing activities, programs, and policies to influence public opinion about an event, idea, product, or organization.

Public speaking

The process of making effective presentations to an audience.

Publisher (Microsoft)

A desktop publishing layout program used to create simple documents for in-house document production.

Publishing

The process of issuing a publication.

Pullout

See foldout.

Punctuation

Standard marks and signs used to separate words, phrases, and sentences, denote emphasis and pauses, and otherwise clarify meaning in a written communication.

Purchase order (PO)

An offer to buy certain services, supplies, or construction based on certain terms and conditions.

Purposeful sampling

Choosing research participants who have specific characteristics.

PV

Planned value.

P-value

The probability that study results are based on chance rather than the result of the intervention.

PWBS

Project work breakdown structure.

PWS

Performance Work Statement.

 

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