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Glossary - E

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EA

Enterprise architecture.

EAC

Estimate at completion.

EAP

Employee assistance program.

Early adopters

One of five adopter categories. Describes individuals who embrace change and adopt new technologies after some consideration. See also adopter categories, early majority, innovators, laggards, late majority.

Early finish date (EF)

In the critical path method, the earliest possible time at which the uncompleted portions of an activity or project can finish, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints.

Early majority

One of five adopter categories. Describes individuals who embrace change and adopt new technologies after careful consideration. See also adopter categories, early adopters, innovators, laggards, late majority.

Early start date (ES)

In the critical path method, the earliest possible time at which the uncompleted portions of an activity or project can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints.

Earned value (EV)

A measure of the value of work performed so far. Earned value uses original estimates and progress-to-date to show whether the actual costs incurred are on budget and whether the tasks are ahead of or behind the baseline plan. See also actual cost.

Earned value management (EVM)

A management technique that relates resource planning to schedules and to technical cost and schedule requirements while considering risk. All work is planned, budgeted, and scheduled in time-phased increments constituting a cost and schedule measurement baseline.

Easy to learn

The aspect of usability that focuses on users spending minimum time and effort in the learning phase.

E-business

Electronic business. Conducting business transactions using electronic means, such as the Internet and mobile transmissions. Can be business-to-business (B2B) and/or business-to-consumer (B2C), and can involve selling (e-commerce) and/or purchasing (e-procurement). See also e-commerce, e-procurement.

ECC

Estimated cost to complete.

E-commerce

Electronic commerce. Conducting business transactions between businesses, or between businesses and consumers, usually over the web or by other automated means. See also e-business, e-procurement, m-commerce, t-commerce, u-commerce.

Economic life

The period of actual usefulness of an asset; the period beyond which it is cheaper to replace or scrap an asset than to continue maintaining it. See also depreciable life.

Editing

Reviewing copy to ensure quality of clarity, flow, and logic. See also proofing.

Editing marks

See proofreading marks.

Edu-blog

Education-oriented blog. See also blog types.

EF

Early finish date.

Effective

The attribute of usability that focuses on guiding the user and ensuring that all parts of the task are properly completed.

Efficient

The attribute of usability that focuses on spending minimum time and effort to accomplish a task.

Effort

The number of labor units (for example, staff hours, days, or weeks) that are required to complete an activity. See also duration.

e.g. (exempli gratia)

Latin abbreviation for “for example.”

E-learning

Education delivered using the Internet, a computer network, a CD-ROM, interactive TV, or a satellite broadcast. Also called electronic learning. See also computer-based training.

Electronic bulletin board

See bulletin board system.

Electronic learning

See e-learning.

Electronic publishing

Publishing by printing via a computer device, or without printing via output on fax, computer bulletin board, or other electronic medium.

Ellipsis (…)

Punctuation used to indicate that one or more words are omitted.

Em dash (— or --)

In typography, a dash the length of an em space that is used to indicate a break in a sentence. See also en dash, hyphen.

Em space

In typography, a distance equal to the current point size; for example, 10 points in 10-point type. See also en space.

E-management

A method that allows an organization to win competitive advantages or core competence using the Internet and e-business.

Embedded Help

Just-in-time information provided at the point of use and typically initiated by moving the mouse over a link on an application’s screen or on a web page.

Emboss

To press an image into paper so it is above the surface.

Employee assistance program (EAP)

A workplace program an employer provides to help employees recover from alcohol abuse, drug abuse, emotional problems, job stress, marital problems, or workplace conflict.

Employment law

The branch of law concerned with all areas of the employer/employee relationship, excluding the negotiation process covered by labor law and collective bargaining. Employment law includes employment discrimination, pensions, unemployment compensation, workers’ compensation, and workplace safety.

Empowerment

The process of enabling or authorizing an individual to autonomously make decisions and take action.

Emulator

A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.

EMV

Expected monetary value.

En dash (–)

In typography, a dash the length of an en space that is used to indicate a range of values. See also em dash, hyphen.

En space

In typography, a distance equal to one half the current point size; for example, 5 points in 10-point type. See also em space.

Encapsulated PostScript file (EPS)

A self-contained graphic file that contains vector image data and PostScript commands that allow other graphics applications to lay out a page.

Encoding

The process of formatting a sequence of characters for efficient transmission or storage.

Encoding

In podcasting, the process of converting recorded audio files into MP3 for upload and distribution.

Encore CS4 (Adobe)

A set of design and authoring tools for producing high-definition Blu-ray discs with pop-up menus, dual-layer burning, and subtitles. Encore can also produce DVDs and export SWF (Flash) files to the web.

Encryption

The process of encoding data to ensure that only the intended recipient can receive it.

End matter

See back matter.

End note

A reference or explanatory note at the end of a book or chapter. See also footnote.

End user

The person or group for whom the project’s product or service is developed.

End-to-end testing

Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems.

Endurance testing

Testing that checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

Engaging

The aspect of usability that focuses on capturing and holding the user's attention and interest.

Engraving

A printing method that uses a plate (a die) that has an image cut into its surface.

Enhancement

A change or group of changes to the scope of an existing project which provide additional functionality, features, or capabilities.

Enterprise architecture (EA)

The practice of applying a comprehensive and rigorous method for describing the current and/or future structure and behavior of an organization's processes, information systems, personnel, and organizational units, so that they align with the organization's core goals and strategic direction.

Enterprise resource planning (ERP)

A business management system that integrates all facets of the business, including manufacturing, marketing, planning, and sales.

Entity

Any component of a software product such as source code, specifications, documents, development tools, and test data.

Entity relationship diagram

A graphical representation of the data and data relationships required to support a function or system. The diagram shows relationships between entities (objects about which data is stored) used in the processes encompassed by a function or system.

Environmental scan

See external assessment.

E-procurement

Purchasing products or services using electronic means, such as the Internet and mobile transmissions. See also e-business, e-commerce.

EPS

Encapsulated PostScript file.

EPS

Adobe Illustrator file format.

Ergonomics

The creation of interfaces between humans and machines which improve ease of use and productivity.

ERP

Enterprise resource planning.

ES

Early start date.

Estimate

An assessment of the likely quantitative result, usually applied to projects costs and durations, which includes some indication of accuracy.

Estimate at completion (EAC)

The actual estimated cost of work completed to date plus the predicted cost and schedule for finishing the remaining work. Calculated as (ACWPcum + PF) x (BAC - BCWPcum).

Estimate to complete (ETC)

The expected additional cost, expressed in dollars or hours, needed to complete an activity, group of activities, or entire project. Calculated as BAC - BCWP. See also earned value, estimate at completion.

Estimated cost

Anticipated cost of performance of a project.

Estimated cost to complete (ECC)

The remaining costs to be incurred to complete to satisfy the complete scope of a project.

Estimated final cost

Anticipated cost to complete a project or component; the sum of the committed cost to date and the estimated cost to complete. See also estimate at completion.

et al. (et alii)

Latin abbreviation for “and others.”

ETC

Estimate to complete.

etc. (et cetera)

Latin abbreviation for “and the rest” or “and so forth.”

Etch

The process of using chemicals to carve an image into metal, glass or film.

Ethical communication

As defined by STC and adopted by the Board of Directors in 1998, “As technical communicators, we observe the following ethical principles in our professional activities.

  • Legality - We observe the laws and regulations governing our profession. We meet the terms of contracts we undertake. We ensure that all terms are consistent with laws and regulations locally and globally, as applicable, and with STC ethical principles.
  • Honesty - We seek to promote the public good in our activities. To the best of our ability, we provide truthful and accurate communications. We also dedicate ourselves to conciseness, clarity, coherence, and creativity, striving to meet the needs of those who use our products and services. We alert our clients and employers when we believe that material is ambiguous. Before using another person's work, we obtain permission. We attribute authorship of material and ideas only to those who make an original and substantive contribution. We do not perform work outside our job scope during hours compensated by clients or employers, except with their permission; nor do we use their facilities, equipment, or supplies without their approval. When we advertise our services, we do so truthfully.
  • Confidentiality - We respect the confidentiality of our clients, employers, and professional organizations. We disclose business-sensitive information only with their consent or when legally required to do so. We obtain releases from clients and employers before including any business-sensitive materials in our portfolios or commercial demonstrations or before using such materials for another client or employer.
  • Quality - We endeavor to produce excellence in our communication products. We negotiate realistic agreements with clients and employers on schedules, budgets, and deliverables during project planning. Then we strive to fulfill our obligations in a timely, responsible manner.
  • Fairness - We respect cultural variety and other aspects of diversity in our clients, employers, development teams, and audiences. We serve the business interests of our clients and employers as long as they are consistent with the public good. Whenever possible, we avoid conflicts of interest in fulfilling our professional responsibilities and activities. If we discern a conflict of interest, we disclose it to those concerned and obtain their approval before proceeding.
  • Professionalism - We evaluate communication products and services constructively and tactfully, and seek definitive assessments of our own professional performance. We advance technical communication through our integrity and excellence in performing each task we undertake. Additionally, we assist other persons in our profession through mentoring, networking, and instruction. We also pursue professional self-improvement, especially through courses and conferences.”
 

Ethics

The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession.

Ethnography

The process of gathering information about users and tasks directly from the users by studying them in their normal environment. See also research methods.

Ethnomethodology

The study of how people make sense of their world, show this understanding to others, and produce a mutually shared social order.

Euphemism

Substitution of a mild word or expression for one that is more blunt, harsh, or offensive. See also rhetorical strategies.

EV

Earned value.

Evaluation

The fifth phase of ADDIE, an iterative application model for instructional systems design. The goal of this phase is to assess the quality of, and the ISD procedures used to generate, the training materials before and after implementation. See also ADDIE.

Evaluation survey

Market research to determine the effectiveness, impact, and relevance of a process given the objectives. See also attitude survey, opinion survey, satisfaction survey.

Evaluative

In metrics, a measurement of observed quality. An example of an evaluative measurement is a user comprehension score.

Event blog

A blog that contains content specific to an event. See also blog types.

Evidence-based management

A management approach based on using current best evidence to make decisions. See also management styles.

EVM

Earned value management

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Exception Report

A document that includes only major variations from plan (rather than all variations).

Exception reporting

The process of documenting those situations where there have been significant variances from project specifications (baselines).

Exclamation point (!)

Punctuation used to end a sentence that expresses high emotion.

EXE

Executable file format.

Execution year

See current year.

Executive Summary

A formal report, or a synopsis at the beginning of a formal report, that presents the main points in a way that saves time for executives.

Exempt employee

An employee who does not receive compensation for all hours worked over 40 per week.

Exhaustive testing

Testing that covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for the software that is being tested.

Exhibition of mastery

An assessment in which students use oral presentations, portfolios, video presentations, or other methods to demonstrate their knowledge and skill.

Exit criteria

A predefined set of conditions used to verify that a process has been completed and that its products are acceptable. See also gating, phase gate.

Expected monetary value (EMV)

A tool for quantitative risk analysis, EMV is the product of two numbers: risk probability (the estimated probability that a specific risk event will occur) and risk value (the estimated value or impact of a gain or loss if the risk event occurs).

Expected value

In risk management, the result of multiplying the probability of a variable’s occurrence by its estimated monetary impact.

Expense

A decrease in owner’s equity caused by the using up of assets in producing revenue or carrying out other activities that are part of the entity’s operations. Expenses are normally paid from expense budgets (such as operating budget) as contrasted with capital expenditures which are paid from capital budgets.

Experiment

A set of observations performed to solve a problem or question.

Experimental design

A research design in which the independent variables are manipulated to observe the associated reactions.

Expert system

A computer program that simulates human decisions.

Explicit knowledge

Formal knowledge in the form of books, documents, databases, and so on. See also knowledge.

Exploded view

An illustration of a disassembled item whose parts indicate their proper relationships to the whole.

Export

To save a file in a format used by another software application.

Extensible hypertext markup language (XHTML)

A combination of HTML and XML.

Extensible markup language (XML)

A generic format that allows maximum flexibility for providing information in a variety of formats. See also web feed, web feed formats.

Extent

See page count.

External assessment

An analysis of the factors that affect the environment surrounding an organization. Also called environmental scan.

External audit

An audit performed by anyone outside the integrated project team.

External risk

A risk beyond the control or influence of the integrated project team.

External stakeholders

Stakeholders external to the organization, such as banks, government, media, suppliers, and trade groups. See also internal stakeholders.

Extranet

Networks based on the open Internet and web standards. Unlike the Internet, Extranets are not open to the public. They have well-defined ownership, and access is strictly controlled by the participating organizations. Extranets cross organizational boundaries, allowing companies to share resources, conduct transactions, and enhance business communications.

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