Return to Glossary home


The thinnest line.


An image comprised of a series of dots in which gradations of light are created by the relative darkness and density of the dots.

Hands-on/minds-on activities

Activities in which students use physical and mental skills to solve problems.

Hanging indent

A formatting style in which the first line in a paragraph aligns with the left margin and all subsequent lines are indented an equal amount. See also indent.


Printed information output, as opposed to electronic presentation. See also softcopy.

Harvard comma

See serial comma.

Hawthorne effect

The situation where research subjects consciously or unconsciously change their behavior because they know they are being studied.


One or two lines of information (for example, organization name and document title) that appear at the top of each page in a document. Also called running head. See also footer.


The title of a section in a document. See also run-in heading, subheading.

Heat stamp

See foil emboss.


Use of two words connected by a conjunction, rather than using an independent word and a modifier. See also rhetorical strategies.


A guideline for evaluating a user interface, which can be used to identify design problems.

Heuristic evaluation

A testing methodology in which an interface specialist studies a system in depth to look for properties that, based on previous experience, lead to problems.

Hierarchical analysis

The process of identifying the critical subordinate skills and interrelationships required to achieve a goal.

High-order questions

Questions that require thinking and reflection instead of single-solution responses.

High-order tests

Black-box tests conducted after the software has been integrated.

High-order thinking skills

The skills necessary to understand complex concepts and apply conflicting information to solve a problem that may have more than one correct answer.

Hiring interview

An interview that allows the employer to evaluate the candidate and allows the candidate to evaluate the organization and the job. See also interview.


A graphical display of related information that displays the relative frequency or occurrence of continuous data values, which values occur most and least frequently, and the shape, centering, and spread of the data distribution. See also plot types.


A request for a file made by a user-agent, such as a web browser, search engine, or spider.


The extent to which research results are similar to one other.

Hostile work environment

A work environment so imbued with harassment or other unwanted behavior that it interferes with people’s ability to do their jobs.

Hot foil stamp

See foil stamp.


The active (typically clickable) area of an interface element, such as banner ad or navigation item. Also referred to as a target.


Hypertext markup language file format.


Hypertext markup language.


Hypertext markup language file format.


Hypertext transfer protocol.


The specific color of an object; for example, blue, red, or yellow.

Human capital

All of the skills, competencies, and expertise of the people within an organization or team. See also innovation capital, intellectual capital, market capital, organizational capital.

Human factors

The study of biological, physical, psychological, and social characteristics as related to environments, objects, and services.

Human translation

Translation by a human translator rather than a machine. See also translation.

Human-computer interaction

The design, evaluation, and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use.

Humanistic psychology

An area of psychology that emphasizes human growth potential and a constructivist/subjective view of the world, viewing a learner as an active agent and a teacher as a helper or facilitator.


The interchange of two words from a more logical relationship to a less logical relationship. See also rhetorical strategies.


The separation of words that belong together to emphasize the first word or create a certain image. See also rhetorical strategies.


Exaggeration for emphasis or effect. See also rhetorical strategies.


A piece of code in a document which links to another resource (web page, online document, or a portion thereof).


A set of documents (text, images, tables, and so on) connected to each other with links.

Hypertext markup language (HTML)

The coding language for publishing web pages. It can be created and processed in a wide range of tools from simple plain text editors to sophisticated authoring tools. HTML uses tags to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links and more.

Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)

The protocol that tells the server what to send to the client so that the client can view web pages, FTP sites, or other areas of the Internet.

Hyphen (-)

A short horizontal mark used to divide words into parts or to connect words or syllables. See also em dash, en dash.


A statement that can be proved true or false through research.

Hysteron proteron

An inversion of the natural sequence of events to stress a later but more important event. See also rhetorical strategies.


Return to Glossary home